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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended October 29, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from           to          
Commission file number 1-7819

Analog Devices, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Massachusetts 04-2348234
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Analog Way,Wilmington,MA 01887
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(781935-5565
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
______________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock $0.16 2/3 par value per shareADINasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes    No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes  No 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $62,631,000,000 based on the last reported sale of the Common Stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on April 30, 2022. Shares of voting and non-voting stock beneficially owned by executive officers, directors and holders of more than 5% of the outstanding stock have been excluded from this calculation because such persons or institutions may be deemed affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of October 29, 2022, there were 509,295,941 shares of Common Stock, $0.16 2/3 par value per share, outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Document DescriptionForm 10-K Part
Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held March 8, 2023III




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item 6. Reserved
Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions That Prevent Inspections
Schedule II - Valuation and Qualifying Accounts




Note About Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” contains forward-looking statements regarding future events and our future results that are subject to the safe harbor created under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and other safe harbors under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements. These statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts, and projections about the industries in which we operate and the beliefs and assumptions of our management. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “targets,” “goals,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “continues,” “may,” “could” and “will,” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. In addition, any statements that refer to projections regarding our future financial performance; our anticipated growth and trends in our businesses; new or improved innovative solutions, products, and technologies; the effects of business, economic, political, legal, and regulatory impacts or conflicts upon our global operations; changes in demand for semiconductors and the related changes in demand and supply for our products; manufacturing, delays, product availability, and supply chain disruptions; our ability to recruit or retain our key personnel; our future liquidity, capital needs and capital expenditures; our development of technologies and research and development investments; the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition and results of operations; our future market position and expected competitive changes in the marketplace for our products; our plans to pay dividends or repurchase stock; servicing our outstanding debt; our expected tax rate; the effect of changes in or the application of new or revised tax laws; expected cost savings; the effect of new accounting pronouncements; plans to integrate or realize the benefits or synergies expected of acquired businesses and technologies, including the acquired business, operations and employees of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.; our continued initiatives to consolidate our footprint related to our business units including our manufacturing, engineering, sales, marketing and administrative offices; implementation of environment, health and safety standards; environment, social and governance related goals; and other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. Readers are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that are difficult to predict, including those identified in Part I, Item 1A. "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Therefore, actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, including to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of the filing of this report, except to the extent required by law.



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PART I

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
Company Overview, Strategy and Mission
Analog Devices, Inc. (we, Analog Devices or the Company) is a leading semiconductor company dedicated to solving our customers' most complex engineering challenges. We deliver innovations that connect technology to human breakthroughs and play a critical role at the intersection of the physical and digital world by providing the building blocks to sense, measure, interpret, connect and power. We design, manufacture, test and market a broad portfolio of solutions, including integrated circuits (ICs), software and subsystems that leverage high-performance analog, mixed-signal and digital signal processing technologies. Our comprehensive product portfolio, deep domain expertise and advanced manufacturing capabilities extend across high-performance precision and high-speed mixed-signal, power management and processing technologies – including data converters, amplifiers, power management, radio frequency (RF) ICs, edge processors and other sensors.
The Third Wave of Information and Communications Technology, as we refer to it at Analog Devices, is characterized by ubiquitous sensing, hyper-scale and edge computing and pervasive connectivity. These technological trends are driving a continuous evolution of new generations of applications that are increasing the demand for Analog Devices’ high-performance analog, mixed-signal, power and RF ICs. We have positioned our business to capitalize on the secular growth opportunities across our markets and to deliver innovative solutions. Central to our strategy is our focus on challenges that our customers have across the most impactful application areas. That is built around the following three key priorities, which will continue to drive our long-term success:
Efficient use of capital. Research and development (R&D) is critical to continue our cycle of innovation-driven success. We target the most attractive opportunities, particularly across our business-to-business (B2B) markets including Industrial, Automotive and Communications. We are also deeply committed to extracting value from our recent acquisitions to complement our R&D and drive long-term value creation. Through the development of cutting-edge innovations and our ability to solve difficult problems across a broad array of applications, we generate significant cash flow and are deeply committed to delivering strong shareholder returns.
Deepening customer-centricity. Close customer relationships influence aspects of our business: from our broad range of product portfolios and applications expertise to manufacturing capabilities in high-performance power management and precision and high-speed signal processing technologies. At the same time, our engineering talent continues to be an important competitive differentiator in the semiconductor space. We strive to be the destination for the world's best engineering talent with a team of more than 11,400 engineers. Together, our products and our engineering talent enable us to partner with our customers, leveraging our analog domain expertise and receiving the full benefit of our technology capabilities to develop complete and innovative solutions.
Capitalizing on secular trends. We are positioned to capitalize on important secular growth trends, including the Intelligent Edge, industrial automation, ubiquitous connectivity, electric vehicles, in-cabin experience, digital healthcare and space, as we are well-aligned with the key B2B markets driving this increase in data and we will continue to be a critical partner in the collection, creation and communication of our customers’ edge data.
In addition to driving organic growth, our strategy involves expansion through the acquisition of businesses, assets or technologies that allow us to complement our existing product offerings, expand our market coverage, increase our engineering talent or enhance our technological capabilities. For example, we have executed on this strategy through:
the acquisition of Hittite Microwave Corporation in the fiscal year ended November 1, 2014, which strengthened our market leadership in high-performance RF and broadened our portfolio across the entire frequency spectrum from DC to 100 gigahertz;
the acquisition of Linear Technology Corporation (Linear) in the fiscal year ended October 28, 2017, which added high-performance power management and additional precision signal processing to our portfolio, expanding and diversifying our offerings to deliver more complete solutions; and
the acquisition of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. (Maxim) in the fiscal year ended October 30, 2021 (fiscal 2021), which strengthens our position as a high-performance analog semiconductor company.
We were incorporated in Massachusetts in 1965 with our corporate headquarters near Boston in Wilmington, Massachusetts. We have manufacturing facilities primarily in the United States, Ireland and Southeast Asia.  Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol ADI and is included in the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index.
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Acquisition of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
On August 26, 2021 (Acquisition Date), we completed the acquisition of Maxim, an independent manufacturer of innovative analog and mixed-signal products and technologies. Pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of July 12, 2020 (the Merger Agreement), Maxim stockholders received, for each outstanding share of Maxim common stock, 0.6300 of a share of the Company’s common stock as of the Acquisition Date, for total consideration of approximately $28.0 billion of our common stock. The acquisition of Maxim is referred to as the Acquisition.
Available Information
We maintain a website with the address www.analog.com. We are not including the information contained on our website as a part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We make available free of charge through our website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K (including exhibits), and amendments to these reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). We also make available on our website our by-laws, corporate governance guidelines, the charters for our audit committee, compensation committee, and nominating and corporate governance committee, our equity award granting policies, our code of business conduct and ethics which applies to our directors, officers and employees, and our related person transaction policy, and such information is available in print and free of charge to any shareholder of Analog Devices who requests it. In addition, we intend to disclose on our website any amendments to, or waivers from, our code of business conduct and ethics that are required to be publicly disclosed pursuant to rules of the SEC or Nasdaq.
Products
Semiconductor components are the building blocks used in electronic systems and equipment. These components are classified as either discrete devices, such as individual transistors, or as ICs, in which a number of transistors and other elements are combined to form a more complicated electronic circuit.
Our ICs are designed to address a wide range of real-world signal processing applications. We sell our ICs to customers worldwide, many of whom use products spanning our core technologies in a wide range of applications. Our IC product portfolio includes both general-purpose products used by a broad range of customers and applications, as well as application-specific products designed for specific target markets. By using readily available, high-performance, general-purpose products in their systems, our customers can reduce the time they need to bring new products to market. Given the high cost of developing more customized ICs, our standard products often provide a cost-effective solution for many low to medium volume applications. More specifically, our analog ICs monitor, condition, amplify or transform continuous analog signals associated with physical properties, such as temperature, pressure, weight, light, sound or motion, and play an important role in bridging real world phenomena to a variety of electronic systems. Our analog ICs also provide voltage regulation and power control to electronic systems.
We also focus on working with leading customers to design application-specific solutions. We begin with our existing core technologies, which leverage our analog and mixed signal, power management, RF and microwave, edge processors and other sensors, and devise solutions that more closely meet the needs of a specific customer or group of customers. Because we have already developed the core technology platform for our general-purpose products, we can create application-specific solutions quickly and efficiently.
Our analog and mixed-signal IC technology has been the foundation of our business for over five decades, and we are one of the world’s largest suppliers of high-performance analog ICs. Our analog signal processing ICs are primarily high-performance devices, offering higher dynamic range, greater bandwidth, and other enhanced features. We believe that the principal advantages these products have as compared to competitors’ products include higher accuracy, higher speed, lower cost per function, smaller size, lower power consumption and fewer components, resulting in improved performance and reliability. Our product portfolio includes several thousand analog ICs, many of which can have several hundred end customers. Our analog ICs typically have long product life cycles. Our customers include original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and customers who build electronic subsystems for integration into larger systems.
Our product offerings include more than 75,000 stock keeping units (SKUs) that can be aggregated into the following general categories:
Analog and Mixed Signal—We are a leading supplier of data converter products. Data converters translate real-world analog signals into digital data and also translate digital data into analog signals. Data converters remain our largest and most diverse product family and an area where we are continuously innovating to enable our customers to redefine and differentiate their products. Our converter products combine sampling rates and accuracy with the low noise, power, price and small package size required by industrial, automotive, consumer, and communications electronics.
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Power Management & Reference—Power management and reference products, which include functions such as power conversion, driver monitoring, sequencing and energy management, provide efficient solutions for power management and conversion applications in the automotive, communications, industrial and high-end consumer markets. Our high-performance power ICs include powerful performance, integration and software design simulation tools to provide fast and accurate power supply designs.
Amplifiers/RF and Microwave—We are also a leading supplier of high-performance amplifiers which are used to condition analog signals. High performance amplifiers emphasize the performance dimensions of speed and precision. Within this product portfolio we provide precision, instrumentation, high speed, intermediate frequency/RF/microwave, broadband, and other amplifiers. Our analog product line also includes a broad portfolio of high-performance RF and microwave ICs covering the entire RF signal chain. Our high-performance RF and microwave ICs support the high-performance requirements of cellular infrastructure and a broad range of applications in our target markets, including instrumentation, aerospace and automotive.
Sensors & Actuators—Our analog technology portfolio is comprised of sensor and actuator products, including products based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. MEMS technology enables us to build extremely small sensors that incorporate an electromechanical structure and the supporting analog circuitry for conditioning signals obtained from the sensing element. Our MEMS product portfolio includes accelerometers used to sense acceleration, gyroscopes used to sense rotation, inertial measurement units used to sense multiple degrees of freedom combining multiple sensing types along multiple axes, and broadband switches suitable for radio and instrument systems. We offer other high-performance sensors, from temperature to magnetic fields, that are deployed in a variety of systems. In addition to sensor products, our other analog product category includes isolators that enable designers to implement isolation in designs without the cost, size, power, performance, and reliability constraints found with optocouplers.
Digital Signal Processing and System Products (DSPs)—DSPs are optimized for high-speed numeric calculations, which are essential for instantaneous, or real-time, processing of digital data generated, in most cases, from analog to digital signal conversion. Our DSPs are designed to be fully programmable and to efficiently execute specialized software programs, or algorithms, associated with processing digitized real-time, real-world data. Programmable DSPs are designed to provide the flexibility to modify the device’s function quickly and inexpensively using software. Our general-purpose DSP IC customers typically write their own algorithms using software development tools provided by us and third-party suppliers. Our DSPs are designed in families of products that share common architectures and therefore can execute the same software across a range of products.
Sales Channel
We sell our products globally through a direct sales force, third-party distributors, independent sales representatives and via our website. We have direct sales offices, sales representatives and/or distributors in over 50 countries. We support our worldwide sales efforts through our website and with extensive promotional programs that include editorial coverage and paid advertising in online and printed trade publications, webinars, social media and communities, promotional and training videos, direct mail programs, technical seminars and participation in trade shows. We publish, share and distribute technical content such as data sheets, application guides and catalogs.  We maintain a staff of field application engineers who aid customers in incorporating our products into their products. In addition, we offer a variety of web-based tools that ease product selection and aid in the design process for our customers.
We believe distributors provide a cost-effective means of reaching a broad range of customers while providing efficient logistics services. From time to time, we may add or terminate distributors in specific geographies, or move customers to a direct support or fulfillment model as we deem appropriate given our strategies, the level of distributor business activity and distributor performance and financial condition.
These distributors typically maintain an inventory of our products. Some of them also sell products that compete with our products, including those for which we are an alternate source. We make sales to distributors under agreements that allow certain distributors to receive price adjustment credits and to return qualifying products for credit, as determined by us, in order to reduce the amounts of slow-moving, discontinued or obsolete product from their inventory. These agreements limit such returns to a certain percentage of our shipments to that distributor during the prior quarter. In addition, certain distributors are allowed to return unsold products if we terminate the relationship with the distributor. Additional information relating to our revenue and customer concentration is set forth in Note 2l, Concentrations of Risk; Note 2n, Revenue Recognition; and Note 4, Industry, Segment and Geographic Information, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We typically do not have long-term sales contracts with our customers. In some of our markets where end-user demand may be particularly volatile and difficult to predict, some customers place orders that require us to manufacture product and
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have it available for shipment, even though the customer is unwilling to make a binding commitment to purchase all, or even any, of the product. In other instances, we manufacture product based on forecasts of customer demand. As a result, we may incur inventory and manufacturing costs in advance of anticipated sales and are subject to the risk of cancellation of orders leading to a sharp reduction of sales and backlog. Further, those orders or forecasts may be for products that meet the customer’s unique requirements so that those canceled orders would, in addition, result in an inventory of unsaleable products, resulting in potential inventory write-offs. As a result of lengthy manufacturing cycles for some of our products that are subject to these uncertainties, the amount of unsaleable product could be substantial.
Markets
The breakdown of our annual revenue by end market is set out in the table below:
End Market*
Percent of Fiscal 2022 Revenue
Percent of Fiscal 2021 Revenue
Percent of Fiscal 2020 Revenue
Industrial51%55%54%
Automotive21%17%14%
Communications16%16%21%
Consumer13%11%11%
*The sum of the individual percentages may not equal 100% due to rounding.
The following describes some of the characteristics of, and customer products within, our major end markets of Industrial, Automotive, Communications and Consumer:
Industrial — Our industrial market includes the following sectors:
Industrial Automation — We are a leader in industrial automation because we deliver robust, high performance solutions from our deep motion and process control expertise and precision sensing measurement and interpretation to expansive connectivity and power capabilities. We take real-world phenomena in the most complex environments on the factory floor and translate it into valuable insights and outcomes. We co-create with customers to architect robotics systems and solutions that improve dynamic behavior and precision while enhancing worker safety, machine health, and manufacturing flexibility. Our industrial automation market includes applications such as:
• Condition-based monitoring (CbM) • Industrial power supplies
• Industrial robotics • Industrial motion control
• Factory and process control 
Instrumentation & Measurement — Trusted measurement is at the forefront of innovation. With the rapid pace of global transformation, from ubiquitous connectivity, to electrification, to artificial intelligence, to human health and environmental sustainability — all these trends require reliable and efficient test solutions from R&D to manufacturing to field deployment. We enable high performance measurement through our components and system solutions. Our RF, high-speed and power management products are designed to enable solutions for complying with evolving communications standards. Our high-voltage, isolation and precision products are a key part of the systems that are designed for safety, longevity and efficiency in electric vehicles and renewable energy. Beyond electrical testing, our precision and power technology enable analytical instruments for drug or vaccine R&D and manufacturing, food safety and quality, and environmental monitoring. Our instrumentation and measurement market includes applications such as:
• Automated test equipment • Automotive and energy test
• Electronic test and measurement • Life sciences and drug discovery
• Environmental and process analysis
Aerospace/Defense — The defense, commercial avionics and space markets all require high-performance ICs that meet rigorous environmental and reliability specifications. Many of our ICs can be supplied in versions that meet these standards. In addition, many products can be supplied to meet the standards required for broadcast satellites and other commercial space applications. Most of our products sold in this market are specially tested versions of products derived from our standard product offering. As end systems are becoming more complex, many of our customers in this market also look for us to provide higher levels of integration in order to minimize size, weight and power and to improve ease-of-use.  As such, we also sell products in the form of SiPs (system in package), printed circuit board assemblies, modules, and subsystems. Customer
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products include applications such as:
• Navigation systems • Radar systems
• Space and satellite communications • Security devices
• Communication systems• Electronic surveillance and countermeasures
Healthcare — The healthcare market is evolving in response to the need for increased access to better and more affordable care, as well as a growing focus on preventative healthcare and the need to better manage chronic conditions. To help achieve this, we are collaborating with customers and partners on innovative solutions that are designed to achieve better outcomes for patients and physicians at reduced costs for all. Our offerings include both standard and application-specific products and are used in applications such as:
• Ultrasound systems • Anesthesia equipment
• X-Ray equipment (CT and DR) • Lab diagnostic equipment
• Image guided therapy • Surgical tools and instruments
• Multi-parameter vital signs monitors • Blood analyzers
• Remote patient monitoring
 • Point-of-care diagnostics
Energy Management — The global drive towards improved energy efficiency, conservation, reliability and cleanliness is driving investments in electrification across many different application areas, including electric vehicle charging infrastructure, renewable energy, power transmission and distribution systems, electric meters and other innovative areas. The common characteristic behind these efforts is the addition of sensing, measurement and communication technologies to electrical infrastructure. Our offerings include both standard and application-specific products and are used in applications such as:
• Utility meters • Wind turbines
• Electric vehicle charging infrastructure • Solar inverters
• Substation relays and automation equipment • Building energy automation/control
Automotive — We develop differentiated high-performance signal processing solutions, which enable sophisticated transportation systems that span infotainment, electrification and autonomous applications. Through collaboration with manufacturers worldwide, we have developed a broad portfolio of analog, digital, power and sensor ICs that address the emerging needs of this evolving industry. Our focus is on audio/video applications that lead to an enriched in-cabin experience, electrification applications that improve vehicle range and reduce emissions, and mission-critical perception and navigation applications that enable vehicles to more clearly sense the external environment. Specifically, we have developed products used in applications such as:
Car audio, voice processing and connectivityBattery monitoring and management systems
Video processing and connectivity
Communications — The development of broadband, wireless and internet infrastructures around the world has created an important market for our communications products. Communications technology involves the processing of signals that are converted from analog to digital and digital to analog form during the process of transmitting and receiving data. The need for higher speed and reduced power consumption, coupled with more reliable, bandwidth-efficient communications, creates demand for our products, which are used in the full spectrum of signal processing for data, video, voice and machine-to-machine communications. In wireless and wireline communication applications, our products are incorporated into:
• Cellular base station equipment• Satellite and terrestrial broadband access equipment
• Microwave backhaul systems• Optical and cable networking equipment for data center and carrier providers
• Data centers and data storage
Consumer — To address the market demand for state of the art personal and professional entertainment systems and the consumer demand for high quality user interfaces, music, movies and photographs, we have developed analog, digital and mixed-signal and power solutions that meet the rigorous cost and time-to-market requirements of the consumer electronics market. The emergence of high-performance, feature-rich consumer products has created a market for our high-performance ICs with a high level of specific functionality that enables best in class user experience and battery management. These products include:
• Portable devices (smart phones, tablets and wearable devices) for media and vital signs monitoring applications• Prosumer audio/video equipment
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See Note 4, Industry, Segment and Geographic Information, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information about our products by end market.
Competition
We believe that competitive performance in the marketplace for signal processing products depends upon multiple factors, including technological innovation, strength of brand, diversity of product portfolio, product performance, technical support, delivery capabilities, customer service quality, reliability and price, with the relative importance of these factors varying among products, markets, and customers. We compete with a number of semiconductor companies in markets that are highly competitive. Many companies have sufficient financial, manufacturing, technical, sales and marketing resources to develop and market products that compete with our products. Some of our competitors may have more advantageous supply or development relationships with our current and potential customers or suppliers. Our competitors also include both emerging companies selling specialized products in markets we serve and companies outside of the U.S., including entities associated with well-funded efforts by foreign governments to create indigenous semiconductor industries.
We believe that our technical innovation emphasizing product performance and reliability, supported by our commitment to strong customer service and technical support, enables us to make a fundamental difference to our customers’ competitiveness in our chosen markets.
Seasonality
Our sales are subject to a varying degree of seasonality. Historically, sales to customers during our first fiscal quarter may be lower than other quarters due to plant shutdowns at some of our customers during the holiday season. In general, the seasonality for any specific period of time has not had a material impact on our results of operations. In addition, as explained in our risk factors contained in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our revenue is more likely to be influenced on a quarter to quarter basis by cyclicality in the semiconductor industry.
We believe that a number of factors should be used to assess future customer demand, including backlog, macroeconomic trends, customer insights and current customer bookings as compared to billings (book-to-bill) ratio. We define backlog to mean firm orders from a customer or distributor with a requested delivery date within thirteen weeks. However, backlog may be impacted by the tendency of customers to rely on shorter lead times available from suppliers, including us, in periods of depressed demand. In periods of increased demand, there is a tendency towards longer lead times that has the effect of increasing backlog and, in some instances, we may not have manufacturing capacity sufficient to fulfill all orders. We have experienced increased demand over the past two years leading to a constrained supply environment. In response, we have added manufacturing capacity to address some of the increased demand. As is customary in the semiconductor industry, we allow most orders to be canceled within a reasonable notification period or deliveries to be delayed by customers without significant penalty, while also allowing certain distributors to receive price adjustment credits and to return qualifying products for credit, as determined by us, in order to reduce the amounts of slow-moving, discontinued or obsolete product from their inventory.
Production Resources
Monolithic IC components are manufactured in a sequence of semiconductor production steps that include wafer fabrication, wafer testing, dicing the wafer into individual “chips,” or dice, assembly of the dice into packages and electrical testing of the devices in final packaged form. The raw materials used to manufacture these devices include silicon wafers, processing chemicals (including liquefied gases), precious metals laminates, ceramic and plastic used for packaging. We utilize, develop and employ a wide variety of manufacturing processes, primarily based on bipolar and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, which are specifically tailored for use in fabricating high-performance analog, DSP and mixed-signal ICs. Devices such as MEMS, iCoupler® isolators and various sensors are fabricated using specialized processes, which typically use substantially similar equipment as bipolar and CMOS processes.
Our IC products are fabricated on proprietary processes at our internal production facilities in Wilmington, Massachusetts; Camas, Washington; Beaverton, Oregon; and Limerick, Ireland and also on a mix of proprietary and non-proprietary processes at third-party wafer fabricators. We currently source more than half of our wafer requirements annually from third-party wafer fabrication foundries, such as Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) and others, and the remainder is sourced internally. In addition, we operate an assembly, wafer sort and testing facility in Penang, Malaysia, and test facilities in the Philippines and Thailand. We also make extensive use of third-party subcontractors for the assembly and testing of our products.
Our products require a wide variety of components, raw materials and external foundry services, most of which we purchase from third-party suppliers. We have multiple sources for many of the components and materials that we purchase and incorporate into our products. If any of our key suppliers are unable or unwilling to manufacture and deliver sufficient quantities of components to us on the time schedule and of the quality that we require, we may be forced to seek to engage additional or replacement suppliers, which could result in significant expenses and disruptions or delays in manufacturing,
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product development and shipment of product to our customers. Although we have experienced shortages of components, materials and external foundry services from time to time, we are working to balance these constraints as we shift our global resources and change capacity where appropriate.
Patents and Intellectual Property Rights
We seek to establish and maintain our proprietary rights in our technology and products through the use of patents, copyrights, mask works, trademarks and trade secrets. We have a program to file applications for and obtain patents, copyrights, mask works and trademarks in the United States and in selected foreign countries where we believe filing for such protection is appropriate. We also seek to maintain our trade secrets and confidential information by nondisclosure policies and through the use of appropriate confidentiality agreements. We have obtained a substantial number of patents and trademarks in the United States and in other countries. As of October 29, 2022, we held approximately 4,800 U.S. patents and approximately 440 published pending U.S. patent applications. There can be no assurance, however, that the rights obtained can be successfully enforced against infringing products in every jurisdiction. While our patents, copyrights, mask works, trademarks and trade secrets provide some advantage and protection, we believe our competitive position and future success is largely determined by such factors as the system and application knowledge, innovative skills, technological expertise and management ability and experience of our personnel; the range and success of new products being developed by us; our market brand recognition and ongoing marketing efforts; and customer service and technical support. It is generally our policy to seek patent protection for significant inventions that may be patented, though we may elect, in certain cases, not to seek patent protection even for significant inventions, if we determine other protection, such as maintaining the invention as a trade secret, to be more advantageous. We also have trademarks that are used in the conduct of our business to distinguish genuine Analog Devices products, and we maintain cooperative advertising programs to promote our brands and identify products containing genuine Analog Devices components.
Environment, Health and Safety Compliance
We are committed to protecting the environment and the health and safety of our employees, customers and the public. We endeavor to adhere to applicable environment, health and safety (EHS) regulatory and industry standards across all of our facilities, and to encourage pollution prevention, reduce our water and energy consumption, manage waste streams to divert from landfills, and strive towards continual improvement. We strive to achieve excellence in EHS management practices as an integral part of our total quality management system.
Our EHS management systems in all of our manufacturing facilities are certified to ISO 14001:2015 for environmental management. In addition, our legacy Analog Devices facilities are certified to ISO 45001 for occupational health and safety, and as part of our integration efforts, we are developing a path to certification for our legacy Maxim sites as well. Our industrial hygiene surveillance program minimizes and prevents exposures in the workplace. We use two industry standard metrics to assess injury performance and trends worldwide. In fiscal 2021 and the fiscal year ended October 29, 2022 (fiscal 2022), our global injury rates were lower than the U.S. semiconductor industry benchmark.
Our manufacturing facilities are subject to numerous and increasingly strict federal, state, local and foreign EHS laws and regulations, particularly with respect to the transportation, storage, handling, use, emission, discharge and disposal of certain chemicals used or produced in the semiconductor manufacturing process. Our products are subject to increasingly stringent regulations regarding substance content in jurisdictions where we sell products. Contracts with many of our customers reflect these and additional EHS compliance standards. Substance content of our products includes materials that are subject to conflict mineral reporting requirements. Compliance with these laws and regulations has not had a material impact on our capital expenditures, earnings, financial condition or competitive position. There can be no assurance, however, that current or future environmental laws and regulations will not impose costly requirements upon us. Any failure by us to comply with applicable environmental laws, regulations and contractual obligations could result in fines, suspension of production, the need to alter manufacturing processes and legal liability.
We are a member of the Responsible Business Alliance, which was formerly known as the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition, as well as a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact and the Business Ambition for 1.5°C campaign. Our 2021 Environment, Social and Governance (ESG) Report states our goals to be carbon neutral by calendar year 2030, to achieve net zero emissions by calendar year 2050 or sooner, to achieve a water recycling rate of at least 50% in manufacturing facilities by 2025, to comply with our code of business conduct and ethics and to apply fair labor standards. The ESG Report is available on our website at www.analog.com/sustainability. The contents of our website and the information contained in our ESG Report are not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
To support our commitment to ESG, we have implemented an oversight structure which includes a quarterly reporting cadence both to senior management and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of the Board of Directors. These quarterly reports include updates on progress against goals, assessment of regulatory preparedness, stakeholder engagement feedback, and programmatic progress and challenges.
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Cybersecurity and Information Security Risk Oversight
We regularly perform risk assessments relating to cybersecurity and technology risks. Our enterprise security program has been developed based on industry standards, including those published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Highlights of the program include:
A comprehensive set of enterprise security policies and procedures that guide our protection strategy.
Protecting against threats through use of the following measures: identifying critical assets and high-risk threats; implementing cybersecurity detection, controls and remediation practices; implementing a third-party risk management program to evaluate our critical partners’ cyber posture; and evaluating our program effectiveness by performing internal and external audits.
Risks identified by our cybersecurity program are analyzed to determine the potential impact on us and the likelihood of occurrence. Such risks are continuously monitored to ensure that the circumstances and severity of such risks have not changed. Senior leadership and our internal audit team regularly provide the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors with updates on the performance of our program. At least annually, the Chief Information Officer updates the full Board of Directors on information security matters and risk, including cybersecurity.
We conduct regular workforce training to instruct employees to identify cybersecurity concerns and take the appropriate action. We install and regularly update antivirus software on all company managed systems and workstations to detect and prevent malicious code from impacting our systems. In addition, we have a product security team focused on integrating risk and security best practices into our product development life cycle. Periodically, we are audited by an independent information systems expert to determine both the adequacy of, and compliance with, controls and standards.
We have determined that an information security risk insurance policy would not be effective, and that we should continue to self-insure for cybersecurity risks. We have not experienced a material security breach in the last three years, and as a result, we have not incurred any net expenses from such a breach. Furthermore, we have not been penalized or paid any amount under an information security breach settlement over the last three years.
Human Capital and Empowerment
Our company was founded on the principle that people are our greatest asset. Our future success depends in large part on the continued service of our key technical and senior management personnel, and on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate qualified employees, particularly highly-skilled engineers involved in the design, development, support and manufacture of new and existing products and processes. In order for us to attract the best talent, we aim to offer challenging work in an environment that enables our employees to learn, grow and reach their full potential.
Core to our empowerment strategy is embracing diversity and building a culture of inclusion across the organization. We are working to achieve this by expanding the diversity of our workforce, creating growth and development opportunities for our employees, embracing different perspectives and fostering an inclusive work environment for all. In addition, we encourage employees to organize and develop different employment networks, which contribute to our broader diversity and inclusion initiatives. Our current employee networks include the Analog Veterans Network, Neurodiversity Network, People of Color and Allies Network, Pride Network, Women’s Leadership Network, Young Professionals Network, the Green Team and the Communities Activities Board. As noted in "Environment, Health and Safety Compliance" above, we published our 2021 ESG report which details our sustainability efforts, operations efficiency, employee engagement, and governance, and also provides a look at the state of our organization and an overview of some of the initiatives we have launched to drive continuous improvements across diversity and inclusion.
As of October 29, 2022, we had approximately 24,450 employees, of whom approximately 11,400 are in engineering roles. Approximately 59% of our workforce is male and 41% female. Our senior leadership team is 73% male and 27% female, while manager roles are approximately 75% male and 25% female. 30% of the members of our Board of Directors are female. For fiscal 2022, our voluntary employee turnover rate was approximately 11.2%.
Our human capital resource objectives include identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and future employees. We strive to attract and retain the most talented employees in the industry and across the globe by offering competitive compensation and benefits that support their health, financial and emotional well-being. Our compensation philosophy is based on rewarding each employee’s individual contributions and striving to achieve equal pay for equal work regardless of gender, race or ethnicity. We use a combination of fixed and variable pay including base salary, bonuses, performance awards and equity compensation. The principal purposes of our equity incentive plans are to attract, retain and motivate selected employees and directors through the granting of stock-based compensation awards. We offer employees benefits that vary by country and are designed to meet or exceed local laws and to be competitive in the marketplace. Examples of benefits offered in the U.S. include a 401(k) plan with employer contributions; health benefits; life, business travel and disability insurance; additional voluntary insurance; paid time off and parental leave; education assistance; paid counseling
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assistance; backup child and adult care; adoption support; and family college planning. For further information concerning our equity incentive plans, see Note 3, Stock-based Compensation and Shareholders' Equity, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
In order to ensure that we are meeting our human capital objectives we frequently utilize employee surveys to understand the effectiveness of our employee and compensation programs and where we can improve across the company. Our latest survey, which was completed in fiscal 2021 prior to the Acquisition, had a participation rate of over 83% of legacy employees of Analog Devices. The survey results indicated that we excel in areas including purpose, respectful treatment, commitment to diversity/inclusion and accountability. Our dual focus of being a great place to work and providing industry-leading benefits and work culture has led to strong employee satisfaction and pride that has been recognized across the globe, as evidenced with the following awards: Forbes World's Top Female Friendly Companies (2022, 2021), Forbes World’s Best Employer List (2020) and The Boston Globe’s Top Places to Work (2021, 2020).



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ITEM 1A.     RISK FACTORS
Set forth below and elsewhere in this report and in other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are descriptions of certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements in this report. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we presently deem less significant may also adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to our Business, Operations, Industry and Partners
Global political and economic uncertainty and adverse conditions related to our international operations could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have significant operations and manufacturing facilities outside the United States, including in Ireland, the Philippines, Thailand, and Malaysia. A significant portion of our revenue is derived from customers in international markets, and we expect that international sales will continue to account for a significant portion of our revenue in the future. As a result of our international operations, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted by the following:
political, legal and economic changes, crises or instability and civil unrest in markets in which we do business, such as potential macroeconomic weakness related to trade and political disputes between the United States and China, changes in China-Taiwan relations that may adversely affect our operations in Taiwan, our customers, and the technology industry supply chain, the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union, the implementation of the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement and the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine;
compliance requirements of U.S. customs and export regulations, including the Export Administration Regulations and the International Traffic and Arms Regulations;
currency conversion risks and exchange rate and interest rate fluctuations, including the potential impact of the transition from LIBOR and the current increasing interest rate environment;
instability of global credit and financial markets due to adverse macroeconomic conditions such as rising inflation, increasing interest rates and slower economic growth or recession that could, among other impacts, affect our ability to access external financing sources on acceptable terms or lead to financial difficulties or uncertainty of our customers, suppliers and distributors exposing us to late payments, cancelled orders and inventory challenges, among others;
trade policy, commercial, travel, export or taxation disputes or restrictions, import or export tariffs, changes to export classifications or other restrictions imposed by the U.S. government or by the governments of the countries in which we do business, particularly in China;
sanctions imposed by governments in countries in which we do business, including those imposed on Russia by, among others, the European Union, the U.S. and the United Kingdom in response to the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which sanctions restrict a wide range of trade and financial dealings with Russian and Russian persons, as well as certain regions in Ukraine;
complex, varying and changing government regulations and legal standards and requirements, particularly with respect to tax regulations, price protection, competition practices, export control regulations and restrictions, customs and tax requirements, immigration, anti-boycott regulations, data privacy, cyber security, sustainability and climate-related regulations, intellectual property, anti-corruption and environmental compliance, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
economic disruption from terrorism and threats of terrorism and the response to them by the U.S. and its allies;
increased managerial complexities, including different employment practices and labor issues;
changes in immigration laws, regulations and procedures and enforcement practices of various government agencies;
greater difficulty enforcing intellectual property rights and weaker laws protecting such rights;
natural disasters or public health emergencies, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic;
transportation disruptions and delays and increases in labor and transportation costs;
changes to foreign taxes, tariffs and freight rates;
fluctuations in raw material costs and energy costs due to general market factors and conditions such as inflation and supply chain constraints;
greater difficulty in accounts receivable collections and longer collection periods; and
increased costs associated with our foreign defined benefit pension plans.
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Many of these factors and risks are present within our business operations in China. For example, changes in U.S.-China relations, the political environment or international trade policies and relations could result in further revisions to laws or regulations or their interpretation and enforcement, increased taxation, trade sanctions, the imposition of import or export duties and tariffs, restrictions on imports or exports, currency revaluations, or retaliatory actions, which have had and may continue to have an adverse effect on our business plans and operating results. In addition, expanded export restrictions limit our ability to sell to certain Chinese companies and to third parties that do business with those companies. These restrictions have created and may continue to create uncertainty and caution with our current or prospective customers and may cause them to amass large inventories of our products, replace our products with products from another supplier that is not subject to the export restrictions, or focus on building indigenous semiconductor capacity to reduce reliance on U.S. suppliers. Furthermore, if these export restrictions cause our current or potential customers to view U.S. companies as unreliable, we could suffer reputational damage or lose business to foreign competitors who are not subject to such export restrictions, and our business could be materially harmed. We are continuing to evaluate the impact of these restrictions on our business, but these actions may have direct and indirect adverse impacts on our revenues and results of operations in China and elsewhere. In addition, our success in the Chinese markets may be adversely affected by China’s continuously evolving policies, laws and regulations, including those relating to antitrust, cybersecurity, data protection and data privacy, the environment, indigenous innovation and the promotion of a domestic semiconductor industry, and intellectual property rights and enforcement and protection of those rights.
We rely on third parties for supply of raw materials and parts, semiconductor wafer foundry services, assembly and test services, and transportation, among other things, and we generally cannot control their availability or conditions of supply or services.
We rely, and plan to continue to rely, on third-party suppliers and service providers, including raw material and components suppliers, semiconductor wafer foundries, assembly and test contractors, and freight carriers (collectively, vendors) in manufacturing our products. This reliance involves several risks, including reduced control over availability, capacity utilization, delivery schedules, manufacturing yields, costs, and supply chain allocations. We currently source more than half of our wafer requirements annually from third-party wafer foundries, including Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) and others. These foundries often provide wafer foundry services to our competitors and therefore periods of increased industry demand may result in capacity constraints. With respect to TSMC in particular, geopolitical changes in China-Taiwan relations could disrupt TSMC’s operations, which would adversely affect our ability to manufacture certain products and as a result, could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our manufacturing processes require availability of certain raw materials and supplies. Limited or delayed access to these items could adversely affect our results of operations. In certain instances, one of our vendors may be the sole source of highly specialized processing services or materials. If such vendor is unable or unwilling to manufacture and deliver components to us on the time schedule and of the quality or quantity that we require, we may be forced to seek to engage an additional or replacement vendor, which could result in additional expenses and delays in product development or shipment of product to our customers. If additional or replacement vendors are not available, we may also experience delays in product development or shipment which could, in turn, result in the temporary or permanent loss of customers and as a result could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The markets for semiconductor products are cyclical, and increased production may lead to overcapacity and lower prices, and conversely, we may not be able to satisfy unexpected demand for our products.
The cyclical nature of the semiconductor industry has resulted in periods when demand for our products has increased or decreased rapidly. The demand for our products is subject to the strength of our four major end markets of Industrial, Automotive, Communications, and Consumer. If we expand our operations and workforce too rapidly or procure excessive resources in anticipation of increased demand for our products, and that demand does not materialize at the pace at which we expect, or declines, or if we overbuild inventory in a period of decreased demand, our operating results may be adversely affected as a result of increased operating expenses, reduced margins, underutilization of capacity or asset impairment charges. These capacity expansions by us and other semiconductor manufacturers could also lead to overcapacity in our target markets which could lead to price erosion that could adversely impact our operating results. Conversely, during periods of rapid increases in demand, our available capacity may not be sufficient to satisfy the demand. In addition, we may not be able to expand our workforce and operations in a sufficiently timely manner, procure adequate resources and raw materials, locate suitable third-party suppliers, or respond effectively to changes in demand for our existing products or to demand for new products requested by our customers, and our current or future business could be materially and adversely affected.
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A prolonged disruption of our internal manufacturing operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to leveraging an outsourcing model for manufacturing operations, we also rely on our internal manufacturing operations located in the United States, Ireland, the Philippines, Thailand and Malaysia. A prolonged disruption at, or inability to utilize, one or more of our manufacturing facilities, loss of raw materials or damage to our manufacturing equipment for any reason, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic, natural or man-made disasters, civil unrest or other events outside of our control, such as widespread outbreaks of illness, or the failure to maintain our labor force at one or more of these facilities, may disrupt our operations, delay production, shipments and revenue and result in us being unable to timely satisfy customer demand. As a result, we could forgo revenue opportunities, potentially lose market share and damage our customer relationships, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our future success depends upon our ability to execute our business strategy, continue to innovate, improve our existing products, design, develop, produce and market new products, and identify and enter new markets.
Our future success significantly depends on our ability to execute our business strategy, continue to innovate, improve our existing products, and design, develop, produce and market innovative new products and system-level solutions. Product design, development, innovation and enhancement is often a complex, time-consuming and costly process involving significant investment in research and development with no assurance of return on investment. There can be no assurance that we will be able to develop and introduce new and improved products in a timely or efficient manner or that new and improved products, if developed, will achieve market acceptance. Our products generally must conform to various evolving and sometimes competing industry standards, which may adversely affect our ability to compete in certain markets or require us to incur significant costs. In addition, our customers generally impose very high quality and reliability standards on our products, which often change and may be difficult or costly to satisfy. Any inability to satisfy customer quality and reliability standards or comply with industry standards and technical requirements may adversely affect demand for our products and our results of operations.
Our growth is also dependent on our ability to identify and penetrate new markets where we have limited experience yet require significant investments, resources and technological advancements in order to compete effectively, and there can be no assurance that we will achieve success in these markets. There can be no assurance that the markets we serve and/or target based on our business strategy will grow in the future, that our existing and new products will meet the requirements of these markets, that our products, or the end-products in which our products are used, will achieve customer acceptance in these markets, that competitors will not force price reductions or take market share from us, or that we can achieve or maintain adequate gross margins or profits in these markets.
Our future revenue, gross margins, operating results, net income and earnings per share are difficult to predict and may materially fluctuate.
Our future revenue, gross margins, operating results, net income and earnings per share are difficult to predict and may be materially affected by a number of factors, including:
the effects of adverse economic conditions in the markets in which we sell our products, including inflationary pressures, which has resulted, and may continue to result, in increased interest rates, fuel prices, wages, and other costs;
changes in customer demand or order patterns for our products and/or for end products that incorporate our products;
the timing, delay, reduction or cancellation of significant customer orders and our ability to manage inventory;
our ability to accurately forecast distributor demand for our products;
future distributor pricing credits and/or stock rotation rights;
our ability to effectively manage our cost structure in both the short term and over a longer duration;
changes in geographic, product or customer mix;
the extent of the impact and the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic;
changes in our effective tax rates or new or revised tax legislation in the United States, Ireland or worldwide;
the effects of issued, threatened or retaliatory government sanctions, trade barriers or economic restrictions; changes in law, regulations or other restrictions, including executive orders; and changes in import and export regulations, including restrictions on exports to certain companies or to third parties that do business with such companies, export classifications, or duties and tariffs, particularly with respect to China;
the timing of new product announcements or introductions by us, our customers or our competitors and the market acceptance of such products;
pricing decisions and competitive pricing pressures;
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fluctuations in manufacturing yields, adequate availability of wafers and other raw materials, and manufacturing, assembly and test capacity;
the ability of our third-party suppliers, subcontractors and manufacturers to supply us with sufficient quantities of raw materials, products and/or components;
a decline in infrastructure spending by foreign governments, including China;
a decline in the U.S. government defense budget, changes in spending or budgetary priorities, a prolonged U.S. government shutdown or delays in contract awards;
a decline in our backlog;
our ability to recruit, hire, retain and motivate adequate numbers of engineers and other qualified employees to meet the demands of our customers;
our ability to generate new design opportunities and win competitive bid selection processes;
the increasing costs of providing employee benefits worldwide, including health insurance, retirement plan and pension plan contributions and retirement benefits;
our ability to utilize our manufacturing facilities at efficient levels;
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
potential litigation-related costs or product liability, warranty and/or indemnity claims, including those not covered by our suppliers or insurers;
the difficulties inherent in forecasting future operating expense levels, including with respect to costs associated with labor, utilities, transportation and raw materials;
the costs related to compliance with increasing worldwide government, environmental and social responsibility standards;
new accounting pronouncements or changes in existing accounting standards and practices; and
the effects of public health emergencies, civil unrest, natural disasters, widespread travel disruptions, security risks, terrorist activities, international conflicts and other events beyond our control.
In addition, the semiconductor market has historically been cyclical and subject to significant economic upturns and downturns. Our business and certain of the end markets we serve are also subject to rapid technological changes and material fluctuations in demand based on end-user preferences. There can be no assurance (i) that products stocked in our inventory will not be rendered obsolete before we ship them, or (ii) that we will be able to design, develop and produce products in a timely fashion to accommodate changing customer demand.
As a result of these and other factors, we may experience material fluctuations in future revenue, gross margins, operating results, net income and earnings per share on a quarterly or annual basis. Our historical financial performance and results of operations should not be relied upon as indicators of future performance or results. In addition, if our revenue, gross margins, operating results, net income and earnings per share results or expectations do not meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors, the market price of our common stock may decline.
We may not be able to compete successfully in markets within the semiconductor industry in the future.
We face intense competition in the semiconductor industry, and we expect this competition to increase in the future, including from companies located outside of the United States. Competition is generally based on innovation, design, quality and reliability of products, product performance, features and functionality, product pricing, availability and capacity, technological service and support, and the availability of integrated system solutions, with the relative importance of these factors varying among products, markets and customers. Many companies have sufficient financial, manufacturing, technical, sales and marketing resources to develop and market products that compete with our products. Some of our competitors may have more advantageous supply or development relationships with our current and potential customers or suppliers. Our competitors also include both emerging companies selling specialized products in markets we serve and companies outside of the U.S., including entities associated with well-funded efforts by foreign governments to create indigenous semiconductor industries. Existing or new competitors may develop products or technologies that more effectively address the demands of our customers and markets with enhanced performance, features and functionality, lower power requirements, greater levels of integration or lower cost. In addition, as we seek to expand our business, including the design and production of products and services for developing and emerging markets, we may encounter increased competition from our current competitors and/or new competitors. Increased competition in certain markets has resulted in and may continue to result in declining average selling prices, reduced gross margins and loss of market share in those markets. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully in the future against existing or new competitors, or that our operating results will not be adversely affected by increased competition. In addition, the semiconductor industry has experienced significant consolidation over the
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past several years. Consolidation among our competitors could lead to a changing competitive landscape, which could negatively impact our competitive position and market share and harm our results of operations.
If we are unable to recruit or retain our key personnel, our ability to execute our business strategy will be adversely affected.
Our continued success depends to a significant extent upon the recruitment, retention and effective succession of our key personnel, including our leadership team, management and technical personnel, particularly our experienced engineers. The competition for these employees is intense and the labor market is tight. Further, we have recently experienced an increase in undesired attrition. The loss of key personnel or the inability to attract, timely hire and retain key employees with critical technical skills to achieve our strategy, including as a result of changes to immigration policies, could cause business disruptions, increased expenses to address any disruptions, and could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We believe that a critical contributor to our success to date has been our corporate culture, which we have built to foster innovation, teamwork and employee satisfaction. As we grow, including from the integration of employees and businesses acquired in connection with previous or future acquisitions, we may find it difficult to maintain important aspects of our corporate culture, which could negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel who are essential to our future success.
We do not maintain any key person life insurance policy on any of our officers or other employees. The loss of one or more of our key employees, and any failure to have in place and execute an effective succession plan for key executives, could seriously harm our business.
Our customers typically do not make long-term product purchase commitments, and incorrect forecasts or reductions, cancellations or delays in orders for our products could adversely affect our operating results.
We typically do not have sales contracts with our customers that include long-term product purchase commitments. In certain markets where end-user demand may be particularly volatile and difficult to predict, some customers place orders that require us to manufacture product and have it available for shipment, even though the customer is unwilling to make a binding commitment to purchase all, or even any, of the product. In other instances, we manufacture product based on non-binding forecasts of customer demands, which may fluctuate significantly on a quarterly or annual basis and at times may prove to be inaccurate. Additionally, our U.S. government contracts and subcontracts may be funded in increments over a number of government budget periods and typically can be terminated by the government for its convenience. As a result, we may incur inventory and manufacturing costs in advance of anticipated sales, and we are subject to the risk of lower than expected orders or cancellations of orders, leading to a sharp reduction of sales and backlog. Further, if orders or forecasts for products that meet a customer’s unique requirements are canceled or unrealized we may be left with an inventory of unsaleable products, causing potential inventory write-offs, and hindering our ability to recover our costs. As a result of lengthy manufacturing cycles for certain of the products that are subject to these uncertainties, the amount of unsaleable product could be substantial. Incorrect forecasts, or reductions, cancellations or delays in orders for our products could adversely affect our operating results.
Our operating results are dependent on the performance of independent distributors.
A significant portion of our sales are through independent global and regional distributors that are not under our control. These independent distributors generally represent product lines offered by several companies and thus could reduce their sales efforts for our products or they could terminate their representation of us. We generally do not require letters of credit from our distributors, including our largest distributor, and are not protected against accounts receivable default or declarations of bankruptcy by these distributors. Our inability to collect open accounts receivable could adversely affect our operating results. Termination of a significant distributor or a group of distributors, whether at our initiative or the distributor’s initiative or through consolidation in the distribution industry, could disrupt our current business, and if we are unable to find suitable replacements with the appropriate scale and resources, our operating results could be adversely affected.
We are required to estimate the effects of returns and allowances provided to distributors and record revenue at the time of sale to the distributor. If our estimates of such credits and rights are materially understated, it could cause subsequent adjustments that negatively impact our revenues and gross profits in a future period.
Our industry faces challenges associated with products diverted from authorized distribution channels, which could result in reputational harm and have a material adverse effect our business and results of operations.
We market and sell our products directly and through third-party distributors. There is a risk that our products may be diverted from our authorized distribution channels and sold on the “gray market” in ways that are not in accordance with our established agreements, policies and procedures or at our established prices. Customers purchasing our products on the gray market or through other unauthorized channels may use our products for purposes for which they were not intended or that may be contrary to our ethical, legal and regulatory obligations. Customers may also purchase counterfeit or substandard products, including products that have been altered, mishandled or damaged, or purchase used products presented as new, each of which
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could result in damage to property or persons. Further, sales through unauthorized channels could result in our products being sold at prices that are not our established prices and could result in lost revenue. These situations could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
The extent to which the novel strain of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic will adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations is uncertain.
The COVID-19 pandemic has created significant worldwide uncertainty, volatility and economic disruption and has impacted our workforce and operations, the operations of our customers, those of our respective vendors and suppliers and the global capital markets. During the course of the pandemic, many of the countries in which we operate took and continue to take measures to address the pandemic, which at times has resulted in disruptions at some of our manufacturing operations and facilities, including restrictions on our access to facilities. We may also continue to take actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners, and suppliers, which may cause disruption to our business. The continued COVID-19 pandemic could also cause further disruption in our supply chain and customer demand, and could adversely affect the ability of our customers to perform, including in making timely payments to us, which could further impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows continues to be largely dependent on future developments, including the duration, scope and severity of the pandemic, any additional resurgences, variants and severity of variants and the ability to effectively and widely manufacture and distribute vaccines, which are not within our control and cannot be accurately predicted and are uncertain. These events could adversely impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, it may also heighten many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.
Our semiconductor products are complex and we may be subject to warranty, indemnity and/or product liability claims, which could result in significant costs and damage to our reputation and adversely affect customer relationships, the market acceptance of our products and our operating results.
Semiconductor products are highly complex and may contain defects that affect their quality or performance. Failures in our products and services or in the products of our customers could result in damage to our reputation for reliability and increase our legal or financial exposure to third parties. Certain of our products and services could also contain security vulnerabilities, defects, bugs and errors, which could also result in significant data losses, security breaches and theft of intellectual property. We generally warrant that our products will meet their published specifications, and that we will repair or replace defective products, for one year from the date title passes from us to the customer. We invest significant resources in the testing of our products; however, if any of our products contain defects, we may be required to incur additional development and remediation costs pursuant to warranty and indemnification provisions in our customer contracts and purchase orders. These problems may divert our technical and other resources from other product development efforts and could result in claims against us by our customers or others, including liability for costs and expenses associated with product defects, including recalls, which may adversely impact our operating results. We may also be subject to customer intellectual property indemnity claims. Our customers have on occasion been sued, and may be sued in the future, by third parties alleging infringement of intellectual property rights, or damages resulting from use of our products. Those customers may seek indemnification from us under the terms and conditions of our sales contracts with them. In certain cases, our potential indemnification liability may be significant.
Further, we sell to customers in industries such as automotive (including autonomous vehicles), aerospace, defense, and healthcare, where failure of the systems in which our products are integrated could cause damage to property or persons. We may be subject to product liability claims if our products, or the integration of our products, cause system failures. Any product liability claim, whether or not determined in our favor, could result in significant expense, divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, and harm our business. In addition, if any of our products contain defects, or have reliability, quality or compatibility problems not capable of being resolved, our reputation may be damaged, which could make it more difficult for us to sell our products to customers and which could also adversely affect our operating results.
The fabrication of integrated circuits is highly complex and precise, and our manufacturing processes utilize a substantial amount of technology. Minute impurities, contaminants in the manufacturing environment, difficulties in the fabrication process, defects in the masks used in the wafer manufacturing process, manufacturing equipment failures, wafer breakage or other factors can cause a substantial percentage of wafers to be rejected or numerous dice on each wafer to be nonfunctional. While we have significant expertise in semiconductor manufacturing, it is possible that some processes could become unstable. This instability could result in manufacturing delays and product shortages, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
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Risk Related to Acquisitions and Strategic Transactions
Our acquisition of Maxim involves a number of risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results, and we may not realize the financial and strategic goals we anticipate.
In August 2021, we completed our acquisition of Maxim, which we refer to as the acquisition or the merger. The ultimate success of the merger will depend on, among other things, the ability to continue to combine the two businesses in a manner that facilitates growth opportunities. Further, there are a large number of processes, policies, procedures, operations, technologies and systems that must continue to be integrated in connection with the ongoing integration of Maxim’s business. The combined company has and may continue to incur ongoing restructuring, integration, and other costs associated with combining the operations of the two companies in connection with the merger. It is possible that the ongoing integration process could result in the loss of customers, the disruption of ongoing businesses, inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies, unexpected integration issues, higher than expected integration costs and an overall integration process that takes longer than originally anticipated and actual growth, if achieved, may be lower than what we expect and may take longer to achieve than anticipated. There can be no assurances that the two businesses can be integrated successfully in a way that maximizes the combined business to the fullest extent. If we are not able to successfully achieve our objectives, the benefits of the merger may not be fully realized or may take longer to achieve than expected.
To remain competitive, we may need to invest in or acquire other companies, purchase or license technology from third parties, or enter into other strategic transactions in order to introduce new products or enhance our existing products.
An element of our business strategy involves expansion through the acquisitions of businesses, assets, products or technologies that allow us to complement our existing product offerings, diversify our product portfolio, expand our market coverage, increase our engineering workforce, expand our technical skill sets or enhance our technological capabilities. We may not be able to find businesses that have the technology or resources we need and, if we find such businesses, we may not be able to invest in, purchase or license the technology or resources on commercially favorable terms or at all. Acquisitions, investments and technology licenses are challenging to complete for a number of reasons, including difficulties in identifying potential targets, the cost of potential transactions, competition among prospective buyers and licensees, the need for regulatory approvals, and difficulties related to integration efforts. In addition, investments in companies are subject to a risk of a partial or total loss of our investment. Both in the U.S. and abroad, governmental regulation of acquisitions, including antitrust and other regulatory reviews and approvals, has become more complex, increasing the costs and risks of undertaking and consummating significant acquisitions. In order to finance a potential transaction, we may need to raise additional funds by issuing securities or borrowing money. We may not be able to obtain financing on favorable terms, and the sale of our stock may result in the dilution of our existing shareholders or the issuance of securities with rights that are superior to the rights of our common shareholders.
Acquisitions also involve a number of challenges and risks, including:
diversion of management’s attention in connection with both negotiating the transaction and integrating the acquired assets and businesses;
difficulty or delay integrating acquired technologies, operations, systems and infrastructure, and personnel with our existing businesses;
strain on managerial and operational resources as management tries to oversee larger or more complex operations;
the future funding requirements for acquired companies, including research and development costs, employee compensation and benefits, and operating expenses, which may be significant;
servicing significant debt that may be incurred in connection with acquisitions;
potential loss of key employees;
exposure to unforeseen liabilities or regulatory compliance issues of acquired companies;
higher than expected or unexpected costs relating to or associated with an acquisition and related integration of assets and businesses;
difficulty realizing expected cost savings, operating synergies and growth prospects of an acquisition in a timely manner or at all; and
increased risk of costly and time-consuming legal proceedings.
If we are unable to successfully address these risks, we may not realize some or all of the expected benefits of our acquisitions, which may have an adverse effect on our business strategy, plans and operating results.
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Risks Related to Cyber, IP, Legal and Regulatory
Our computer systems and networks may be subject to attempted security breaches and other cybersecurity incidents and a significant disruption in, or breach in security of, our information technology systems or certain of our products could materially and adversely affect our business or reputation.
We rely on information technology systems throughout our company to keep financial records and customer data, process orders, manage inventory, coordinate shipments to customers, maintain confidential and proprietary information, assist in semiconductor engineering and other technical activities and operate other critical functions such as Internet connectivity, network communications and email. Our information technology systems may be susceptible to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to power outages, hardware failures, telecommunication failures, employee malfeasance, user errors, catastrophes or other unforeseen events. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, some of our employees have been working remotely, which may pose additional data security risks. We also rely upon external cloud providers for certain infrastructure activities. If we were to experience a prolonged disruption in the information technology systems that involve our internal communications or our interactions with customers or suppliers, it could result in the loss of sales and customers and significant incremental costs, which could adversely affect our business.
We may also be subject to security breaches of our information technology systems and certain of our products caused by viruses, illegal break-ins or hacking, sabotage, other cyber attacks, or acts of vandalism by third parties or our employees or contractors. Further, geopolitical tensions or conflicts, such as the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, may create a heightened risk of cyber attacks, which could result in significant losses and damage and, could damage our reputation with customers and suppliers if the confidential information of our customers, suppliers, employees or contractors is compromised. Our security measures or those of our third-party service providers may not detect or prevent security breaches, cyber attacks, defects, bugs or errors.
In addition, we provide our confidential and proprietary information to our strategic partners in certain cases where doing so is necessary to conduct our business. Those third parties may be subject to security breaches or otherwise compromise the protection of such information. Security breaches of our information technology systems or those of our partners could result in the misappropriation, loss or unauthorized disclosure of confidential and proprietary information belonging to us or to our employees, contractors, partners, customers, suppliers, or other third parties, system disruptions or denial of service, which could result in our suffering significant financial or reputational damage.
In the event of such breaches, we could be exposed to potential liability, litigation, and regulatory action, as well as the loss of existing or potential customers, damage to our reputation, and other financial loss. In addition, the cost and operational consequences of responding to breaches and implementing remediation measures could be significant.
We may be unable to adequately protect our proprietary intellectual property rights, which may limit our ability to compete effectively.
Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our intellectual property. We primarily rely on patent, mask work, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, as well as nondisclosure agreements, information security practices, and other methods, to protect our proprietary information, technologies and processes. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property, it is possible that competitors or other unauthorized third parties may obtain or disclose our confidential information, reverse engineer or copy our technologies, products or processes, make unlicensed copies or engage in unapproved distributions of our technology for unauthorized uses, or otherwise misappropriate our intellectual property. Moreover, the laws of foreign countries in which we design, manufacture, market and sell our products may afford little or no effective protection of our intellectual property.
There can be no assurance that the claims allowed in our issued patents will be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. In addition, any of our existing or future patents may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. As such, any rights granted under these patents may not prevent others from exploiting our proprietary technology. We may not be able to obtain foreign patents or pending applications corresponding to our U.S. patents and applications. Even if patents are granted, we may not be able to effectively enforce our rights. If our patents and mask works do not adequately protect our technology, or if our registrations expire prior to end of life of our products, our competitors may be able to offer products similar to ours. Our competitors may also be able to develop similar technology independently or design around our patents.
We generally enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants and strategic partners. We also try to control access to and distribution of our technologies, documentation and other proprietary information. Despite these efforts, internal or external parties may attempt to copy, disclose, obtain or use our products or technology without our authorization. Also, former employees may seek employment with our business partners, customers or competitors, and may improperly use our proprietary information at their employer.
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If we fail to comply with U.S. and foreign laws related to privacy, data security, and data protection, it could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We are or may become subject to a variety of laws and regulations such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”), China’s Personal Information Protection Law (the “PIPL”), or California’s Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”) regarding privacy, data protection, and data security. These laws and regulations are continuously evolving and developing. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to us are often uncertain and may be conflicting, particularly with respect to foreign laws.
In particular, there are numerous U.S. federal, state, and local laws and regulations and foreign laws and regulations regarding privacy and the collection, sharing, use, processing, disclosure, and protection of personal data. Such laws and regulations often vary in scope, may be subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among different jurisdictions. For example, the GDPR includes operational requirements for companies that receive or process personal data of residents of the European Union that are broader and more stringent than those in many other jurisdictions around the world. The GDPR includes significant penalties for non-compliance, and China’s PIPL imposes additional operational requirements relating to processing personal information and provides compressive penalty and enforcement mechanisms. Most notably, in the United States, California enacted the CCPA that requires covered companies to provide additional disclosures and data rights to data subjects. The CCPA went into effect on January 1, 2020. The California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) passed by voters in November 2020 will expand the CCPA when the regulations become fully operative on January 1, 2023. The CPRA establishes the California Privacy Protection Agency to enforce Californians’ privacy rights under the CCPA. Since the CCPA was enacted, other states, including Virginia and Colorado, have enacted comprehensive privacy schemes.
The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, the GDPR, CCPA, and similar laws may limit the use and adoption of our products and services and/or require us to incur substantial compliance costs, which could have an adverse impact on our business. Further, our product offerings in the digital healthcare solutions space which include the collection and processing of sensitive personal information subject us to heightened requirements under data privacy laws.
Given that the scope, interpretation, and application of these laws and regulations are often uncertain and may be in conflict across jurisdictions, it is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or our practices. Any failure or perceived failure by us or third party service providers to comply with our privacy or security policies or privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personal data, may result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, or negative publicity, and could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
We are occasionally involved in litigation, administrative proceedings, and regulatory proceedings, which could be costly to resolve and could require us to redesign products, pay significant royalties or fines, or refrain from engaging in specific conduct.
From time to time, we are involved in various legal, administrative and regulatory proceedings, claims, demands and investigations relating to our business, including inquiries from and discussions with government entities regarding the compliance of our contracting and sales practices with laws and regulations which may result in claims with respect to commercial, product liability, intellectual property, cybersecurity, privacy, data protection, antitrust, breach of contract, employment, class action, whistleblower, mergers and acquisitions and other matters. We could also be subject to litigation or arbitration disputes arising under our contractual obligations, customer indemnity, warranty or product liability claims, or other matters that could lead to significant costs and expenses as we defend those claims or pay damage awards. For example, in March 2022, a putative class action was filed in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware against us and the former directors of Maxim as described in Part I, Item 3, “Legal Proceedings.”
Further, the semiconductor industry is characterized by frequent claims and litigation involving patent and other intellectual property rights. Other companies or individuals have obtained patents covering a variety of semiconductor designs and processes, and we might be required to obtain licenses under some of these patents or be precluded from making and selling infringing products, if those patents are found to be valid and infringed by us. In the event a third party makes a valid intellectual property claim against us and a license is not available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, we could be forced either to redesign or to stop production of products incorporating that intellectual property, and our operating results could be materially and adversely affected. Litigation may be necessary to enforce our patents or other of our intellectual property rights or to defend us against claims of infringement.
These matters can be time-consuming, divert management’s attention and resources and cause us to incur significant expenses. Allegations made in the course of regulatory or legal proceedings may also harm our reputation, regardless of whether there is merit to such claims. Because litigation and the outcome of regulatory proceedings are inherently unpredictable, our business, financial condition or operating results could be materially affected by an unfavorable resolution of
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one or more of these proceedings, claims, demands or investigations. There can be no assurance that we are adequately insured to protect against all claims and potential liabilities, and we may elect to self-insure with respect to certain matters. An adverse outcome in litigation or arbitration could have a material adverse effect on our financial position or on our operating results or cash flows in the period in which the dispute is resolved.
Environmental, social and governance (ESG) matters may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and damage our brand and reputation.
There is an increasing focus from investors, customers, employees and potential talent, as well as other stakeholders concerning ESG matters, including climate change and sustainability, human rights, support for local communities, Board of Directors and employee diversity, human capital management, employee health and safety practices, product quality, supply chain management, and corporate governance and transparency. Current and prospective investors are increasingly utilizing ESG data to inform their decisions, including investment and voting, using a multitude of evolving score and rating frameworks. Further, customers are also utilizing ESG data to inform their purchasing decisions. Additionally, public interest and legislative pressure related to public companies’ ESG practices continue to grow. If our ESG practices fail to meet the expectations of investors, customers, employees or other stakeholders’ evolving standards, our reputation, brand and employee retention may be negatively impacted, and our customers and suppliers may be unwilling to continue to do business with us. Additionally, there is increasing legislation globally which will require us to align programs to their expectations and disclose an increasing amount of information and data to illustrate our position and progress. If we do not adapt our strategy or execution quickly enough to meet the evolving expectations of our investors, customers, and regulators, or if our ESG data input, processing and reporting are incomplete or inaccurate, our business, financial condition, results of operations, brand and reputation could be adversely affected.
We are subject to environment, health and safety (EHS) standards and hazards which have the potential to adversely affect our business, increase our expenses, and adversely affect our reputation.
Our industry is subject to EHS requirements and laws, particularly those that control and restrict the sourcing, use, transportation, emission, discharge, storage and disposal of certain substances and materials used or produced in the semiconductor manufacturing process and which help ensure the health and safety of our employees. We are also required to obtain environmental permits from governmental authorities for certain of our operations. Public attention to environmental sustainability and social responsibility concerns continues to increase, and our customers routinely include stringent environmental and other standards in their contracts with us. Changes in EHS laws or regulations may require us to invest in costly equipment or make manufacturing process changes and may adversely affect the sourcing, supply and pricing of materials used in our products. In particular, climate change concerns and the potential resulting environmental impact may result in new or more stringent EHS laws and regulations that may affect us, our suppliers, and our customers. Such laws or regulations could cause us to incur additional direct costs for compliance or costs to control or reduce our environmental impact through, for example, carbon offsets, as well as increased indirect costs resulting from our customers, suppliers, or both incurring additional compliance costs that are passed on to us. These costs may adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we use hazardous and other regulated materials that subject us to risks of strict liability for damages caused by potential or actual releases of such materials. Any failure to control such materials adequately or to comply with existing or future EHS statutory or regulatory standards, requirements or contractual obligations could result in any of the following, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results:
liability for damages and remediation;
the imposition of regulatory penalties and civil and criminal fines;
the suspension or termination of the development, manufacture, sale, or use of certain of our products;
changes to our manufacturing processes or a need to substitute materials that may cost more or be less available;
damage to our reputation; and/or
increased expenses associated with compliance.
If we fail to comply with government contracting regulations, we could suffer a loss of revenue or incur price adjustments or other penalties.
Some of our revenue is derived from contracts with agencies of the United States government and subcontracts with its prime contractors. As a United States government contractor or subcontractor, we are subject to federal contracting regulations, including the Federal Acquisition Regulations, which govern the allowability of costs incurred by us in the performance of United States government contracts. Certain contract pricing is based on estimated direct and indirect costs, which are subject to change. Additionally, the United States government is entitled after final payment on certain negotiated contracts to examine all of our cost records with respect to such contracts and to seek a downward adjustment to the price of the contract if it determines
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that we failed to furnish complete, accurate and current cost or pricing data in connection with the negotiation of the price of the contract.
In connection with our United States government business, we are subject to evolving procurement rules and regulations, as well as government audits and to review and approval of our policies, procedures, and internal controls for compliance with procurement regulations and applicable laws, such as the Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification. In certain circumstances, if we do not comply with the terms of a government contract or with regulations or statutes, we could be subject to downward contract price adjustments or refund obligations or could in extreme circumstances be assessed civil and criminal penalties or be debarred or suspended from obtaining future contracts for a specified period of time. Any such suspension or debarment or other sanction could have an adverse effect on our business.
Under some of our government subcontracts, we are required to maintain secure facilities and to obtain security clearances for personnel involved in performance of the contract, in compliance with applicable federal standards. If we were unable to comply with these requirements, or if personnel critical to our performance of these contracts were unable to obtain or maintain their security clearances, we might be unable to perform these contracts or compete for other projects of this nature, which could adversely affect our revenue.
Damage to our reputation can damage our business.
Our reputation is a critical factor in our relationships with customers, employees, governments, suppliers, and other stakeholders. Our failure to address, or the appearance of our failure to address, issues that give rise to reputational risk, including those described in this Risk Factors section, could significantly harm our reputation and our brands. We may be subject to reputational risks and our brand loyalty may decline if others adopt the same or confusingly similar marks in an effort to misappropriate and profit on our brand name and do not provide the same level of quality as is delivered by our solutions and services. It may also limit our ability to be seen as an employer of choice when competing for highly skilled employees and repairing our reputation and brands may be difficult, time-consuming, and expensive. To the extent we fail to respond quickly and effectively to address corporate and brand crises, the ensuing negative public reaction could significantly harm our reputation and our brands, which could lead to increases in litigation claims and asserted damages or subject us to regulatory actions or restrictions. If we fail to police, maintain, enhance and protect our brands, if we incur excessive expenses in this effort or if customers or potential customers are confused by others’ trademarks, our business, operating results, and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
Increases in our effective tax rate, exposure to additional tax liabilities, or substantial changes in domestic or international corporate tax policies, regulations or guidance may adversely impact our results of operations.
Our effective tax rate reflects the applicable tax rate in effect in the various tax jurisdictions around the world where our income is earned. Our effective tax rate for the fiscal year ended October 29, 2022 was below the U.S. federal statutory rate of 21%. This is primarily due to lower statutory tax rates applicable to our operations in the foreign jurisdictions in which we earn income.
A number of factors may increase our future effective tax rate, including: new or revised tax laws or legislation or the interpretation of such laws or legislation by governmental authorities; increases in tax rates in various jurisdictions; variation in the mix of jurisdictions in which our profits are earned and taxed; deferred taxes arising from basis differences in investments in foreign subsidiaries; any adverse resolution of ongoing tax audits or adverse rulings from taxing authorities worldwide; changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities; adjustments to income taxes upon finalization of various tax returns; increases in expenses not deductible for tax purposes, including executive compensation subject to the limitations of Section 162(m) of the Internal Revenue Code and amortization of assets acquired in connection with strategic transactions; decreased availability of tax deductions for stock-based compensation awards worldwide; and changes in available tax credits. Any significant increase in our future effective tax rate could adversely impact our net income during future periods.
Compliance with tax legislation may require the collection of information not regularly produced by us, and therefore necessitate the use of estimates in our Consolidated Financial Statements and the exercise of significant judgment in accounting for its provisions. As regulations and guidance evolve with respect to tax legislation, and as more information is gathered and analyzed, our results may differ from previous estimates and may materially affect our Consolidated Financial Statements.
We are also subject to laws and regulations in various jurisdictions that determine how much profit has been earned and when it is subject to taxation in that jurisdiction. On August 16, 2022, the U.S. government enacted the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) which imposes a 15% book minimum tax on corporations with three-year average annual adjusted financial statement income exceeding $1 billion. We are in the process of assessing whether the book minimum tax would impact our effective tax rate. Corporate tax reform, anti-base-erosion rules and tax transparency continue to be high priorities in many jurisdictions. Changes in these laws and regulations, including those that align to or are associated with the Organization for Economic
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Cooperation and Development's Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Actions Plans, could impact the jurisdictions where we are deemed to earn income, which could in turn adversely affect our tax liability and results of operations.
Risks Related to Financial Markets, Indebtedness and Capital Return
We have substantial existing indebtedness and the ability to incur significant additional indebtedness, which could limit our operations and our use of our cash flow and negatively impact our credit ratings.
As of October 29, 2022, we had approximately $6.5 billion in outstanding indebtedness. In addition, we had $2.5 billion of availability under our unsecured revolving credit facility. Our leverage could have negative consequences, including increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, limiting our ability to obtain additional financing and limiting our ability to acquire new products and technologies through strategic acquisitions. Further, on October 5, 2021, we issued $500 million aggregate principal amount of floating rate senior notes (the “Floating Rate Notes”). Our Floating Rate Notes and our net interest expense is exposed to changes in market interest rates and will increase as market interest rates rise. We may also incur additional debt, including debt with variable interest rates, in the future, which would increase these risks.
Our ability to make payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness when due depends upon our future operating performance, which may be impacted by general economic conditions, industry cycles and other factors beyond our control. If we are unable to service or refinance our debt, we may be required to divert funds that would otherwise be invested in growing our business operations or returned to shareholders, repatriate earnings as dividends from foreign locations with potential negative tax consequences, or sell selected assets. Such measures might not be sufficient to enable us to service our debt, which could negatively impact our financial results. In addition, we may not be able to obtain any such financing, refinancing or complete a sale of assets on economically favorable terms. In the case of financing or refinancing, favorable interest rates will depend on conditions in the debt capital markets. In addition, if our credit ratings are downgraded or put on watch for a potential downgrade, the applicable interest rate on borrowings under our current revolving credit facility may rise and our ability to obtain additional financing or refinance our existing debt may be negatively affected.
Restrictions in our revolving credit facility and outstanding debt instruments may limit our activities.
Our current revolving credit facility and outstanding debt instruments impose, and future debt instruments to which we may become subject may impose, restrictions that limit our ability to engage in activities that could otherwise benefit us, including to undertake certain transactions, to create certain liens on our assets and to incur certain subsidiary indebtedness. Our ability to comply with these financial restrictions and covenants is dependent on our future performance, which is subject to prevailing economic conditions and other factors, including factors that are beyond our control such as changes in technology, government regulations and the level of competition in our markets. In addition, our revolving credit facility requires us to maintain compliance with specified financial ratios. If we breach any of the covenants under our revolving credit facility, the indentures governing our outstanding senior unsecured notes, or any future debt instruments to which we may become subject and do not obtain appropriate waivers, then, subject to applicable cure periods, our outstanding indebtedness thereunder could be declared immediately due and payable and/or we may be restricted from further borrowing under our revolving credit facility.
We may not meet expectations or targets in connection with our “green” financing arrangements, which could harm our reputation and business.
From time to time, we may enter into “green” financing arrangements that require us to use proceeds for environmental sustainability purposes or have targets related to environmental sustainability. For example, we entered into a revolving credit agreement on June 23, 2021 (the “Revolving Credit Agreement”) that contains a sustainability-linked pricing component, which provides for interest rate and facility fee reductions or increases based on meeting or missing targets related to environmental sustainability, specifically greenhouse gas emissions and renewable energy usage. For calendar year 2021, we did not achieve the greenhouse gas emissions reduction threshold goal related to this sustainability-linked pricing component due in part to increased demand for product, which did not have a material impact on our business, net income, or financing costs. On October 5, 2021, we issued $750 million sustainability-linked senior notes (the “Sustainability-Linked Senior Notes”). Our Sustainability-Linked Senior Notes initially bear interest at a rate of 1.7% per annum and are subject to an increase of an additional 30 basis points per annum from April 1, 2026 to the maturity date unless the Sustainability Performance Target (as defined in the Sustainability-Linked Senior Notes) has been satisfied. Failing to use the net proceeds under green financing arrangements that satisfies investor criteria and expectations regarding environmental impact or achieve targets related to environmental sustainability under such financing arrangements could result in reputational harm and our business and operating results could be negatively impacted.
If we are not able to meet our U.S. cash requirements, it may be necessary for us to consider repatriation of foreign earnings, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
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We carry outside basis differences in certain of our subsidiaries, primarily arising from acquisition accounting adjustments and certain undistributed earnings that are considered indefinitely reinvested. We intend to reinvest these funds in our international operations, and our current plans do not demonstrate a need to repatriate these earnings to fund our U.S. cash requirements. We require a substantial amount of cash in the United States for operating requirements, stock repurchases, cash dividends and acquisitions. If we are not able to meet our U.S. cash requirements through operations, borrowings under our current revolving credit facility, future debt or equity offerings or other sources of cash obtained at an acceptable cost, it may be necessary for us to consider repatriation of earnings that are indefinitely reinvested, and we may be required to pay additional taxes under current tax laws, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
General Risk Factors
Our results of operations could be affected by natural disasters in the locations in which we operate.
We, like many companies in the semiconductor industry, rely on supplies, services, internal manufacturing capacity, wafer fabrication foundries and other subcontractors in locations around the world that are susceptible to natural disasters and other significant disruptions. Earthquakes, fires, tsunamis, flooding or other natural disasters may disrupt local semiconductor-related businesses and adversely affect manufacturing capacity, availability and cost of key raw materials, utilities and equipment, and availability of key services, including transport of our products worldwide. Our insurance may not adequately cover losses resulting from such disruptions. Any prolonged inability to utilize one of our manufacturing facilities, or those of our subcontractors or third-party wafer fabrication foundries, as a result of fire, flood, natural disaster, unavailability of utilities or otherwise, could result in a temporary or permanent loss of customers for affected products, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, global climate change may result in certain natural disasters occurring more frequently or with greater intensity, such as drought, wildfires, storms, sea-level rise, and flooding, and could disrupt the availability of water necessary for the operation of our fabrication facilities located in semi-arid regions. The long-term effects of climate change on the global economy and the semiconductor industry in particular are unclear, but could be severe.
Our stock price may be volatile.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile, as it may be significantly affected by factors including:
global economic conditions generally;
crises in global credit, debt and financial markets;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our revenue and operating results;
changes in financial estimates or other statements made by securities analysts or others in analyst reports or other publications, or our failure to perform in line with those estimates or statements or our published guidance;
financial results and prospects of our customers;
U.S. and foreign government actions, including with respect to trade, travel, export and taxation;
the extent of the impact and the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic;
changes in market valuations of other semiconductor companies;
rumors and speculation in the press, investment community or on social media about us, our customers or other companies in our industry;
announcements by us, our customers or our competitors of significant new products, technical innovations, material transactions, acquisitions or dispositions, litigation, capital commitments, including share repurchases and dividend policies, or revised earnings estimates;
departures of key personnel;
alleged noncompliance with laws, regulations or ethics standards by us or any of our employees, officers or directors; and
negative media publicity targeting us or our suppliers, customers or competitors.
The stock market has historically experienced volatility, especially within the semiconductor industry, that often has been unrelated to the performance of particular companies, such as the response to rising inflation and increasing interest rates. These market fluctuations may cause our stock price to fall regardless of our operating results.
Our directors and executive officers periodically buy or sell shares of our common stock in the market, including pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 trading plans. Regardless of the individual's reasons for such purchases or sales, securities analysts and investors could view such transactions as positive or negative indicators and our stock price could be adversely affected as a result.
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ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

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ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
Manufacturing and other operations are conducted in several locations worldwide. The following tables provide certain information about our significant general offices and manufacturing facilities:
Properties Approximate
Owned:UseTotal Sq. Ft.
Cavite, PhilippinesWafer probe and testing, warehouse, engineering and administrative offices1,518,000 sq. ft.
Wilmington, MACorporate headquarters, wafer fabrication, testing, engineering, sales, marketing and administrative offices826,000 sq. ft.
Limerick, IrelandWafer fabrication, wafer probe and testing, warehouse and distribution, engineering and administrative offices646,000 sq. ft.
San Jose, CAEngineering, sales, marketing and administrative offices435,000 sq. ft.
Beaverton, ORWafer fabrication, engineering and administrative offices432,000 sq. ft.
Penang, Malaysia (1)
Wafer probe and testing, assembly and engineering offices
364,000 sq. ft.
Chonburi Province, ThailandWafer probe and testing, warehouse, engineering and administrative offices194,000 sq. ft.
Chelmsford, MAFinal assembly of certain module and subsystem-level products, testing, engineering and administrative offices174,000 sq. ft.
Camas, WAWafer fabrication105,000 sq. ft.
  Lease 
Properties ApproximateTermination 
Leased:UseTotal Sq. Ft.(fiscal year)Renewals
    
Bangalore, IndiaEngineering and administrative offices175,000 sq. ft.20271, five-yr.
period
San Jose, CAManufacturing, marketing, and administrative offices103,000 sq. ft.20351, five-yr.
period
(1)Leases on the land used for this facility expire in 2054 through 2057.
In addition to the properties listed in the above tables, we also own or lease a number of other facilities in various locations in the United States and internationally that are used for manufacturing, engineering, sales and marketing and administration activities. Leases for these leased facilities expire at various dates through the year 2039. We do not anticipate experiencing significant difficulty in retaining occupancy of any of our facilities through lease renewals prior to expiration or through month-to-month occupancy, or in replacing them with equivalent facilities. For information concerning our obligations under all operating leases, see Note 9, Leases, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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ITEM 3.     LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time in the ordinary course of our business, various claims, charges and litigation are asserted or commenced against us arising from, or related to, among other things, contractual matters, patents, trademarks, personal injury, environmental matters, product liability, insurance coverage, employment or employee benefits. As to such claims and litigation, we can give no assurance that we will prevail. We do not believe that any current legal matters will have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. For information regarding material pending legal proceedings in which we are involved, see Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

ITEM 4.     MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.
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PART II

ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol ADI. The number of holders of record of our common stock at November 18, 2022 was 2,382. This number does not include shareholders for whom shares are held in a “nominee” or “street” name. On October 28, 2022, the last reported sales price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market was $144.88 per share.
On November 21, 2022, our Board of Directors declared a cash dividend of $0.76 per outstanding share of common stock. The dividend will be paid on December 15, 2022 to all shareholders of record at the close of business on December 5, 2022 and is expected to total approximately $387.1 million. We currently expect quarterly dividends to continue in future periods, although they remain subject to determination and declaration by our Board of Directors. The payment of future dividends, if any, will be based on several factors, including our financial performance, outlook and liquidity.
Information regarding our equity compensation plans and the securities authorized for issuance thereunder is set forth in Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The table below summarizes the activity related to stock repurchases for the three months ended October 29, 2022. We have an ongoing authorization, originally approved by our Board of Directors in 2004, and subsequently amended, to repurchase shares of our common stock in open market or negotiated transactions. In March 2020, we temporarily suspended our share repurchase program as a result of the global macroeconomic environment. That suspension continued through the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020 given the planned acquisition of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. We reinstated the common stock repurchase program effective November 2020. As of October 29, 2022, the Company had repurchased a total of approximately 189.6 million shares of its common stock for approximately $11.7 billion under our share repurchase program. An additional $4.9 billion remains available for repurchase of shares under the current authorized program. Future repurchases of common stock will be dependent upon our financial position, results of operations, outlook, liquidity, and other factors we deem relevant.
PeriodTotal Number of
Shares Purchased (1)
Average Price Paid
Per Share (2)
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs (3)
Approximate Dollar
Value of Shares that
May Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or Programs
July 31, 2022 through August 27, 20221,572,964 $172.62 1,515,606 $5,471,910,519 
August 28, 2022 through September 24, 20221,058,260 $148.76 1,041,800 $5,316,957,211 
September 25, 2022 through October 29, 20222,718,976 $143.15 2,705,200 $4,929,659,276 
Total5,350,200 $152.93 5,262,606 $4,929,659,276 
_______________________________________
(1)Includes 87,594 shares withheld by us from employees to satisfy employee tax obligations upon vesting of restricted stock units/awards granted to our employees under our equity compensation plans.
(2)The average price paid for shares in connection with vesting of restricted stock units/awards are averages of the closing stock price at the vesting date which is used to calculate the number of shares to be withheld.
(3)Shares repurchased pursuant to the stock repurchase program publicly announced on August 12, 2004. On August 25, 2021, the Board of Directors approved an increase to the current authorization for the stock repurchase program by an additional $8.5 billion to $16.7 billion in the aggregate. Under the repurchase program, we may repurchase outstanding shares of our common stock from time to time in the open market and through privately negotiated transactions. Unless terminated earlier by resolution of our Board of Directors, the repurchase program will expire when we have repurchased all shares authorized for repurchase under the repurchase program.

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Comparative Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock since October 28, 2017 with the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index and the S&P Semiconductors Index. This graph assumes the investment of $100 on October 28, 2017 in our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P Semiconductors Index and assumes all dividends are reinvested. Measurement points are the last trading day for each respective fiscal year.
https://cdn.kscope.io/a07700b9426ce8ca66167d51f0871f60-adi-20221029_g1.jpg



ITEM 6.     RESERVED
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ITEM 7.     MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (all tabular amounts in thousands except per share amounts)
The following discussion includes results of operations and financial condition for the fiscal year ended October 29, 2022 (fiscal 2022) and the fiscal year ended October 30, 2021 (fiscal 2021) and year-over-year comparisons between fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021. For discussion on results of operations and financial condition for fiscal 2021 and the fiscal year ended October 31, 2020 (fiscal 2020) and year-over-year comparisons between fiscal 2021 and fiscal 2020, please refer to Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for fiscal 2021 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 3, 2021. Our fiscal year is the 52-week or 53-week period ending on the Saturday closest to the last day in October. Fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021 were 52-week fiscal periods.
Impact of COVID-19 on our Business
The pandemic caused by the novel strain of the coronavirus (COVID-19) and the numerous measures implemented by government authorities in response, have impacted and may continue to impact our workforce and operations, the operations of our customers and those of our respective vendors and suppliers. We have significant operations worldwide, including in the United States, the Philippines, Ireland, Malaysia, Thailand and India. Each of these countries has been affected by the pandemic and taken measures to try to contain it, resulting in disruptions at some of our manufacturing operations and facilities, including restrictions on our access to facilities.
The spread of COVID-19 has caused us to modify our business practices (including restricting employee travel, modifying employee work locations and cancelling physical participation in meetings, events and conferences) and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners, suppliers and shareholders.
While we are confident that our strategy and long-term contingency planning have positioned us well to weather the current uncertainty, we cannot at this time fully quantify or forecast the impact of COVID-19 on our business. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows continues to largely depend on future developments, including the duration, scope and severity of the pandemic, any additional resurgences, variants and severity of variants and the ability to effectively and widely manufacture and distribute vaccines, which are not within our control and cannot be accurately predicted and are uncertain.
Acquisition of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
On August 26, 2021 (Acquisition Date), we completed the acquisition of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. (Maxim), an independent manufacturer of innovative analog and mixed-signal products and technologies. Pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of July 12, 2020 (the Merger Agreement), Maxim stockholders received, for each outstanding share of Maxim common stock, 0.6300 of a share of the Company’s common stock as of the Acquisition Date, for total consideration of approximately $28.0 billion of our common stock. The acquisition of Maxim is referred to as the Acquisition. The consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include the financial results of Maxim prospectively from the Acquisition Date. See Note 6, Acquisitions, of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
Results of Operations
Overview
 Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
 2022
2021
  $ Change% Change
Revenue$12,013,953 $7,318,286 $4,695,667 64 %
Gross margin %62.7 %61.8 %
Net income$2,748,561 $1,390,422 $1,358,139 98 %
Net income as a % of revenue22.9 %19.0 %
Diluted EPS$5.25 $3.46 $1.79 52 %
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Revenue Trends by End Market
The following table summarizes revenue by end market. The categorization of revenue by end market is determined using a variety of data points including the technical characteristics of the product, the “sold to” customer information, the "ship to" customer information and the end customer product or application into which our product will be incorporated. As data systems for capturing and tracking this data and our methodology evolves and improves, the categorization of products by end market can vary over time. When this occurs, we reclassify revenue by end market for prior periods. Such reclassifications typically do not materially change the sizing of, or the underlying trends of results within, each end market.
 
Fiscal 2022
Fiscal 2021
Revenue% of
Total
Revenue (1)
Y/Y%Revenue% of
Total
Revenue (1)
Industrial$6,069,332 51 %51 %$4,026,909 55 %
Automotive2,515,513 21 %102 %1,248,169 17 %
Communications1,880,697 16 %56 %1,206,867 16 %
Consumer1,548,411 13 %85 %836,341 11 %
Total Revenue$12,013,953 100 %64 %$7,318,286 100 %
_______________________________________
(1)The sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
Revenue increased across all end markets in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021 primarily as a result of the Acquisition, which contributed approximately 65% of the increase in total revenue year over year, a broad-based increase in demand for our products across all end markets as well as inflationary price increases.
Revenue by Sales Channel
The following table summarizes revenue by sales channel. We sell our products globally through a direct sales force, third party distributors, independent sales representatives and via our website. Distributors are customers that buy products with the intention of reselling them. Direct customers are non-distributor customers and consist primarily of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Other customers include the U.S. government, government prime contractors and certain commercial customers for which revenue is recorded over time.
Fiscal 2022
Fiscal 2021
Revenue% of
Total
Revenue (1)
Revenue% of
Total
Revenue (1)
Distributors$7,458,478 62 %$4,589,944 63 %
Direct customers4,423,883 37 %2,600,353 36 %
Other131,592 %127,989 %
Total Revenue$12,013,953 100 %$7,318,286 100 %
_______________________________________
(1)The sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
As indicated in the table above, the percentage of total revenue sold via each channel has remained relatively consistent in the periods presented, but can fluctuate from time to time based on end customer demand.
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Revenue Trends by Geographic Region
Revenue by geographic region, based upon the geographic location of the distributors or OEMs who purchased the Company's products, for fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021 was as follows:
Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
20222021  $ Change% Change (1)
United States$4,025,398 $2,389,439 $1,635,959 68 %
Rest of North and South America72,497 42,830 29,667 69 %
Europe2,534,423 1,592,989 941,434 59 %
Japan1,221,549 787,966 433,583 55 %
China2,563,536 1,614,396 949,140 59 %
Rest of Asia1,596,550 890,666 705,884 79 %
Total Revenue$12,013,953 $7,318,286 $4,695,667 64 %
_______________________________________
(1)The sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
In all periods presented, the predominant countries comprising “Rest of North and South America” are Canada and Mexico; the predominant countries comprising “Europe” are Germany, Sweden, and the Netherlands; and the predominant countries comprising “Rest of Asia” are Taiwan, Malaysia, South Korea and Singapore.
Total revenue increased in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021 due to the incremental impact of revenue from the Acquisition, broad-based, global demand in the semiconductor industry as well as inflationary price increases.
Gross Margin
 Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
 20222021$ Change% Change
Gross margin$7,532,474 $4,525,012 $3,007,462 66 %
Gross margin %62.7 %61.8 %
Gross margin percentage in fiscal 2022 increased by 90 basis points compared to fiscal 2021 primarily as a result of favorable product mix, synergies related to the Acquisition and higher utilization of our factories due to increased customer demand, partially offset by additional cost of goods sold related to the Acquisition. This additional cost of goods sold related to the Acquisition consisted of amortization expense of intangible assets of $857.1 million in fiscal 2022 compared to $155.4 million in fiscal 2021, and nonrecurring fair value adjustments recorded to inventory of $271.4 million in fiscal 2022 compared to $331.1 million in fiscal 2021. In addition, gross margin percentage in fiscal 2022 included price increases in revenue to offset inflationary cost increases.
Research and Development (R&D)
 Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
 20222021$ Change% Change
R&D expenses$1,700,518 $1,296,126 $404,392 31 %
R&D expenses as a % of revenue14 %18 %
R&D expenses increased in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021 primarily as a result of the Acquisition.
R&D expenses as a percentage of revenue will fluctuate from year-to-year depending on the amount of revenue and the success of new product development efforts, which we view as critical to our future growth. We expect to continue the development of innovative technologies and processes for new products. We believe that a continued commitment to R&D is essential to maintain product leadership with our existing products as well as to provide innovative new product offerings.
Selling, Marketing, General and Administrative (SMG&A)
 Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
 20222021$ Change% Change
SMG&A expenses$1,266,175 $915,418 $350,757 38 %
SMG&A expenses as a % of revenue11 %13 %
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SMG&A expenses increased in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021, primarily as a result of the Acquisition as well as higher salary and benefit expenses and higher variable compensation expenses, partially offset by lower acquisition-related transaction costs.
Amortization of Intangibles
 Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
 20222021$ Change% Change
Amortization expenses$1,012,572 $536,811 $475,761 89 %
Amortization expenses as a % of revenue%%
Amortization expenses increased in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021, primarily as a result of amortization expense of intangible assets recorded as part of the Acquisition.
Special Charges, Net
 Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
 20222021$ Change% Change
Special charges, net$274,509 $84,456 $190,053 225 %
Special charges, net as a % of revenue%%
Special charges, net increased in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021, primarily as a result of charges recorded as part of the integration of Maxim and continued organizational initiatives to better align our global workforce with our long-term strategic plan. During the third quarter of fiscal 2022, we transitioned our engineering, sales, marketing and administrative activities from a leased property in Santa Clara, California to an owned property in San Jose, California. As a result, we entered into a sublease agreement for a portion of the leased property and recorded an impairment charge of $91.9 million in the third quarter of fiscal 2022 related to the associated asset group. The remaining charges were for severance and benefit costs as well as charges recorded from the acceleration of equity awards in connection with the termination of certain employees in manufacturing, engineering and SMG&A roles at sites assumed in connection with the Acquisition and various other locations throughout the world.
Operating Income
 Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
 20222021$ Change% Change
Operating income$3,278,700 $1,692,201 $1,586,499 94 %
Operating income as a % of revenue27.3 %23.1 %
The increase in operating income in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily the result of a $3,007.5 million increase in gross margin, partially offset by a $475.8 million increase in amortization expenses, a $404.4 million increase in R&D expenses, a $350.8 million increase in SMG&A expenses and a $190.1 million increase in special charges, net as more fully described above under the headings Gross Margin, Amortization of Intangibles, Research and Development (R&D), Selling, Marketing, General and Administrative (SMG&A) and Special Charges, Net.
Nonoperating (Income) Expense
 Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
 20222021$ Change% Change
Total Nonoperating expense$179,951 $363,487 $(183,536)(50)%
The year-over-year decrease in nonoperating expense in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily the result of a loss on the extinguishment of debt of $215.2 million related to debt transactions in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021, partially offset by higher interest expense in fiscal 2022 related to our debt obligations and fewer gains on investments in fiscal 2022.
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Provision for (Benefit From) Income Taxes
 Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
 20222021$ Change% Change
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes$350,188 $(61,708)$411,896 n/a
Effective income tax rate11.3 %(4.6)%
Our effective tax rates for fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021 were below the U.S. statutory rate of 21% due to lower statutory tax rates applicable to our operations in the foreign jurisdictions in which we earn income. In fiscal 2021, we recorded a net deferred tax benefit of $188.8 million from deferred tax assets related to an intra-entity transfer of intangible assets. Also, our provision for income taxes increased in fiscal 2022 as a result of higher income before taxes primarily related to the Acquisition. For fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021 our pretax income was primarily generated in Ireland at a tax rate of 12.5%.
See Note 12, Income Taxes, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further discussion.
Net Income
 Fiscal Year2022 over 2021
 20222021$ Change% Change
Net income$2,748,561 $1,390,422 $1,358,139 98 %
Net income, as a % of revenue22.9 %19.0 %
Diluted EPS$5.25 $3.46 $1.79 52 %
The increase in net income in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021 was a result of a $1,586.5 million increase in operating income and a $183.5 million decrease in nonoperating expense, partially offset by a $411.9 million increase in provision for income taxes, as more fully described above under the headings Operating Income, Nonoperating (Income) Expense, and Provision for (Benefit From) Income Taxes.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
At October 29, 2022, our principal source of liquidity was $1,470.6 million of cash and cash equivalents, of which approximately $307.4 million was held in the United States and the balance of our cash and cash equivalents was held outside the United States in various foreign subsidiaries. We manage our worldwide cash requirements by, among other things, reviewing available funds held by our foreign subsidiaries and the cost effectiveness by which those funds can be accessed in the United States. We do not expect current regulatory restrictions or taxes on repatriation to have a material adverse effect on our overall liquidity, financial condition or results of operations. Our cash and cash equivalents consist of highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less, including money market funds. We maintain these balances with high credit quality counterparties, continually monitor the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer and diversify our investments in order to minimize our credit risk.
We believe that our existing sources of liquidity and cash expected to be generated from future operations, together with existing and anticipated available short- and long-term financing, will be sufficient to fund operations, capital expenditures, research and development efforts and dividend payments (if any) in the immediate future and for at least the next twelve months.
 Fiscal Year
 20222021
Net cash provided by operating activities$4,475,402 $2,735,069 
Net cash provided by operating activities as a % of revenue37 %37 %
Net cash (used for) provided by investing activities$(657,368)$2,143,525 
Net cash used for financing activities$(4,290,720)$(3,959,664)
The following changes contributed to the net change in cash and cash equivalents from fiscal 2021 to fiscal 2022.
Operating Activities
Cash provided by operating activities is net income adjusted for certain non-cash items and changes in assets and liabilities. The increase in cash provided by operating activities during fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily a result of higher net income adjusted for noncash items offset by changes in working capital.
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Investing Activities
Investing cash flows generally consist of capital expenditures, cash used for acquisitions and proceeds from or purchases of investments. The change in cash (used for) provided by investing activities during fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily the result of cash received from the Acquisition during fiscal 2021, partially offset by an increase in cash used for capital expenditures during fiscal 2022.
Financing Activities
Financing cash flows consist primarily of payments of dividends to stockholders, repurchases of common stock, issuance and repayment of debt, and proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock pursuant to employee equity incentive plans. The change in cash used for financing activities during fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily the result of a net decrease in debt in fiscal 2022 as compared to a net increase in debt in fiscal 2021, as well as higher dividend payments, partially offset by lower common stock repurchases.
Working Capital
 Fiscal Year
 20222021$ Change% Change
Accounts receivable, net$1,800,462 $1,459,056 $341,406 23 %
Days sales outstanding (1)
50 52 
Inventory$1,399,914 $1,200,610 $199,304 17 %
Days cost of sales in inventory (1)
106 118 
_______________________________________
(1)We use the average of the current year and prior year ending net accounts receivable and ending inventory balance in our calculation of days sales outstanding and days cost of sales in inventory, respectively. Cost of sales amounts used in the calculation of days cost of sales in inventory include Acquisition accounting adjustments related to the sale of acquired inventory written up to fair value, amortization of developed technology intangible assets acquired and depreciation related to the write-up of fixed assets to fair value. The calculations above include the financial results of Maxim prospectively from the Acquisition Date.
The increase in accounts receivable for fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily the result of variations in the timing of collections and billings and increased revenue levels.
Inventory increased in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021, primarily as a result of our efforts to balance manufacturing production, demand and inventory levels. Our inventory levels are impacted by our need to support forecasted sales demand and variations between those forecasts and actual demand. As of October 30, 2021, our inventory balance also included additional costs related to the Acquisition as a result of accounting for acquired inventory at fair-value.
Current liabilities decreased to $2,442.7 million at October 29, 2022 from $2,770.3 million recorded at the end of fiscal 2021, primarily due to early termination of debt, partially offset by higher accounts payable and accruals.
Revolving Credit Facility
Our Third Amended and Restated Revolving Credit Agreement, dated as of June 23, 2021, with Bank of America N.A. as administrative agent and the other banks identified therein as lenders (Revolving Credit Agreement) amended and restated our Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated as of June 28, 2019 and provides for a five year unsecured revolving credit facility in an aggregate principal amount not to exceed $2.5 billion (subject to certain terms and conditions).
We may borrow under this revolving credit facility in the future and use the proceeds for repayment of existing indebtedness, stock repurchases, acquisitions, capital expenditures, working capital and other lawful corporate purposes. The terms of the Revolving Credit Agreement impose restrictions on our ability to undertake certain transactions, to create certain liens on assets and to incur certain subsidiary indebtedness. In addition, the Revolving Credit Agreement contains a consolidated leverage ratio covenant of total consolidated funded debt to consolidated earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) of not greater than 3.5 to 1.0. As of October 29, 2022, we were in compliance with these covenants. See Note 13, Revolving Credit Facility, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our revolving credit facility.
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Debt
As of October 29, 2022, we had approximately $6.5 billion of carrying value outstanding on our debt. The difference in the carrying value of the debt and the principal is due to the unamortized discount and issuance fees and other adjustments on these instruments. The indentures governing certain of our debt instruments contain covenants that may limit our ability to: incur, create, assume or guarantee any debt or borrowed money secured by a lien upon a principal property; enter into sale and lease-back transactions with respect to a principal property; and consolidate with or merge into, or transfer or lease all or substantially all of our assets to, any other party. As of October 29, 2022, we were compliant with these covenants. See Note 14, Debt of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our outstanding debt.
Stock Repurchase Program
Our common stock repurchase program has been in place since August 2004. Since inception, our Board of Directors has authorized us to repurchase $16.7 billion of our common stock under the program, which includes the $8.5 billion authorization approved by the Board of Directors on August 25, 2021. Under the program, we may repurchase outstanding shares of our common stock from time to time in the open market and through privately negotiated transactions. Unless terminated earlier by resolution of our Board of Directors, the repurchase program will expire when we have repurchased all shares authorized under the program.
As of October 29, 2022, $4.9 billion remained available for repurchase under the current authorized program. The repurchased shares are held as authorized but unissued shares of common stock. We also repurchase shares in settlement of employee tax withholding obligations due upon the vesting of restricted stock units/awards or the exercise of stock options. Future repurchases of common stock will be dependent upon our financial position, results of operations, outlook, liquidity, and other factors we deem relevant.
Capital Expenditures
Net additions to property, plant and equipment were $699.3 million in fiscal 2022 and were funded with a combination of cash on hand and cash generated from operations. We expect capital expenditures for fiscal 2023 to be between 6% and 8% of revenue, which is above our historical levels primarily due to our plans to continue to expand internal manufacturing capacity. These capital expenditures will be funded with a combination of cash on hand and cash expected to be generated from future operations, together with existing and anticipated available short- and long-term financing.
Dividends
On November 21, 2022, our Board of Directors declared a cash dividend of $0.76 per outstanding share of common stock. The dividend will be paid on December 15, 2022 to all shareholders of record at the close of business on December 5, 2022 and is expected to total approximately $387.1 million. We currently expect quarterly dividends to continue in future periods, although they remain subject to determination and declaration by our Board of Directors. The payment of future dividends, if any, will be based on several factors, including our financial performance, outlook and liquidity.
Contractual Obligations
The table below summarizes our material contractual obligations in specified periods as of October 29, 2022:
  Payment due by period
  Less than  More than
(thousands)Total1 Year1-3 Years3-5 Years5 Years
Debt obligations (1)
$6,576,865 $— $900,000 $1,400,000 $4,276,865 
Interest payments associated with debt obligations2,446,434 198,459 373,706 323,989 1,550,280 
Transition tax (2)
656,070 127,008 529,062 — — 
Operating leases (3)
454,543 31,199 131,498 113,183 178,663 
Inventory-related purchase commitments (4)428,352 130,069 168,817 64,364 65,102 
Total$10,562,264 $486,735 $2,103,083 $1,901,536 $6,070,910 
_______________________________________
(1)Debt obligations are assumed to be held to maturity.
(2)Tax obligation relates to the one-time tax on deemed repatriated earnings under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 enacted in fiscal 2018.
(3)Certain of our operating lease obligations include escalation clauses. These escalating payment requirements are reflected in the table.
(4)We have supplier commitments for the purchase of materials and supplies in advance or with minimum purchase quantities.
As of October 29, 2022, our total liabilities associated with uncertain tax positions was $194.4 million, which are
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included in non-current income taxes payable in our Consolidated Balance Sheets contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Due to the complexity associated with our tax uncertainties, we cannot make a reasonably reliable estimate of the period in which we expect to settle the non-current liabilities associated with these uncertain tax positions. Therefore, we have not included these uncertain tax positions in the above contractual obligations table.
New Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and are adopted by us as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, management believes that the impact of recently issued standards will not have a material impact on our future financial condition and results of operations. See Note 2s, New Accounting Pronouncements, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of recently issued and adopted accounting pronouncements, including the dates of adoption and impact on our historical financial condition and results of operations.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Management’s discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of operations is based upon the Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience, knowledge of current conditions and beliefs of what could occur in the future based on available information. We consider the following accounting policies to be both those most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and those that require the most subjective judgment. If actual results differ significantly from management’s estimates and projections, there could be a material effect on our financial statements. We also have other policies that we consider key accounting policies; however, the application of these policies does not require us to make significant estimates or judgments that are difficult or subjective.
Revenue Recognition
Recognition of revenue occurs when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the providing entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. We recognize revenue upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those products or services. We recognize revenue when all of the following criteria are met: (1) we have entered into a binding agreement, (2) the performance obligations have been identified, (3) the transaction price to the customer has been determined, (4) the transaction price has been allocated to the performance obligations in the contract, and (5) the performance obligations have been satisfied. The majority of our shipping terms permit us to recognize revenue at point of shipment or delivery. Certain shipping terms require the goods to be through customs or be received by the customer before title passes. In those instances, we defer the revenue recognized until title has passed. Shipping costs are charged to selling, marketing, general and administrative expense as incurred. Sales taxes are excluded from revenue.
Revenue from contracts with the United States government, government prime contractors and certain commercial customers is recorded over time using either units delivered or costs incurred as the measurement basis for progress toward completion. These measures are used to measure results directly and is generally the best measure of progress toward completion in circumstances in which a reliable measure of output can be established. Estimated revenue in excess of amounts billed is reported as unbilled receivables. Contract accounting requires judgment in estimating costs and assumptions related to technical issues and delivery schedule. Contract costs include material, subcontract costs, labor and an allocation of indirect costs. The estimation of costs at completion of a contract is subject to numerous variables involving contract costs and estimates as to the length of time to complete the contract. Changes in contract performance, estimated gross margin, including the impact of final contract settlements, and estimated losses are recognized in the period in which the changes or losses are determined.
Performance Obligations: Substantially all of our contracts with customers contain a single performance obligation, the sale of mixed-signal integrated circuit (IC) products. Such sales represent a single performance obligation because the sale is one type of good or includes multiple goods that are neither capable of being distinct nor separable from the other promises in the contract. This performance obligation is satisfied when control of the product is transferred to the customer, which occurs upon shipment or delivery. Unsatisfied performance obligations primarily represent contracts for products with future delivery dates and with an original expected duration of one year or less. We generally warrant that our products will meet their published specifications, and that we will repair or replace defective products, for one year from the date title passes from us to the customer. Specific accruals are recorded for known product warranty issues.
Transaction Price: The transaction price reflects our expectations about the consideration we will be entitled to receive from the customer and may include fixed or variable amounts. Fixed consideration primarily includes sales to direct customers and sales to distributors in which both the sale to the distributor and the sale to the end customer occur within the same reporting period. Variable consideration includes sales in which the amount of consideration that we will receive is unknown as
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of the end of a reporting period. The vast majority of such consideration are credits issued to the distributor due to price protection, but also include sales made to distributors under agreements that allow certain rights of return, referred to as stock rotation. Price protection represents price discounts granted to certain distributors to allow the distributor to earn an appropriate margin on sales negotiated with certain customers and in the event of a price decrease subsequent to the date the product was shipped and billed to the distributor. Stock rotation allows distributors limited levels of returns in order to reduce the amounts of slow-moving, discontinued or obsolete product from their inventory. A liability for distributor credits covering variable consideration is made based on management's estimate of historical experience rates as well as considering economic conditions and contractual terms. To date, actual distributor claims activity has been materially consistent with the provisions we have made based on our historical estimates.
Contract Balances: Accounts receivable represents our unconditional right to receive consideration from our customers. Payments are typically due within 30 to 45 days of invoicing and do not include a significant financing component. To date, there have been no material impairment losses on accounts receivable. There were no material contract assets or contract liabilities recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheets in any of the periods presented.
Inventory Valuation
We value inventories at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. Because of the cyclical nature of the semiconductor industry, changes in inventory levels, obsolescence of technology, and product life cycles, we write down inventories to net realizable value. We employ a variety of methodologies to determine the net realizable value of inventory. While a portion of the calculation is determined via reference to the age of inventory and lower of cost or net realizable value calculations, an element of the calculation is subject to significant judgments made by us about future demand for our inventory. If actual demand for our products is less than our estimates, additional adjustments to existing inventories may need to be recorded in future periods. To date, our actual results have not been materially different than our estimates.
Long-Lived Assets
We review property, plant, and equipment and intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability of these assets is determined by comparison of their carrying value to the estimated future undiscounted cash flows that the assets are expected to generate over their remaining estimated lives. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized in earnings equals the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds their fair value determined by either a quoted market price, if any, or a value determined by utilizing a discounted cash flow technique. Material impairment adjustments related to our property, plant, and equipment are reflected in our financial statements for the periods presented. Any deterioration in our business in the future could lead to such impairment adjustments in future periods.
Evaluation of impairment of long-lived assets requires estimates of future operating results that are used in the preparation of the expected future undiscounted cash flows. Actual future operating results and the remaining economic lives of our long-lived assets could differ from the estimates used in assessing the recoverability of these assets. These differences could result in impairment charges, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. In addition, in certain instances, assets may not be impaired but their estimated useful lives may have decreased. In these situations, we amortize the remaining net book values over the revised useful lives.
Goodwill
Goodwill is subject to impairment tests annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances suggest that the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable, utilizing either the qualitative or quantitative method. We test goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level, which we determined is consistent with our identified operating segments, on an annual basis on the first day of the fourth quarter (on or about July 31) or more frequently if we believe indicators of impairment exist or we reorganize our operating segments or reporting units.
We have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its net book value. When using the qualitative method, we consider several factors, including the following:
the amount by which the fair values of each reporting unit exceeded their carrying values as of the date of the most recent quantitative impairment analysis, which indicated there would need to be substantial negative developments in the markets in which these reporting units operate in order for there to be potential impairment;
the carrying values of these reporting units as of the assessment date compared to their previously calculated fair values as of the date of the most recent quantitative impairment analysis;
the current forecasts as compared to the forecasts included in the most recent quantitative impairment analysis;
public information from competitors and other industry information to determine if there were any significant adverse trends in our competitors' businesses;
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changes in the value of major U.S. stock indices that could suggest declines in overall market stability that could impact the valuation of our reporting units;
changes in our market capitalization and overall enterprise valuation to determine if there were any significant decreases that could be an indication that the valuation of our reporting units had significantly decreased; and
whether there had been any significant increases to the weighted-average cost of capital rates for each reporting unit, which could materially lower our prior valuation conclusions under a discounted cash flow approach.
If we elect not to use this option, or we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its net book value, then we perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test. The quantitative goodwill impairment test requires an entity to compare the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. If fair value is determined to be less than carrying value, an impairment loss is recognized for the amount of the carrying value that exceeds the amount of the reporting unit's fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. Additionally, we consider income tax effects from any tax deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. We determine the fair value of our reporting units using a weighting of the income and market approaches. Under the income approach, we use a discounted cash flow methodology which requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions related to forecasted revenues, gross profit margins, operating income margins, working capital cash flow, perpetual growth rates, and long-term discount rates, among others. For the market approach, we use the guideline public company method. Under this method we utilize information from comparable publicly traded companies with similar operating and investment characteristics as the reporting units, to create valuation multiples that are applied to the operating performance of the reporting unit being tested, in order to obtain their respective fair values. In order to assess the reasonableness of the calculated reporting unit fair values, we reconcile the aggregate fair values of our reporting units determined, as described above, to our total company market capitalization, allowing for a reasonable control premium.
In fiscal 2022, we used a combination of the qualitative and quantitative methods of assessing goodwill for our reporting units. In fiscal 2021, we used the quantitative method of assessing goodwill for all reporting units. In all periods presented, we concluded the reporting units' fair values exceeded their carrying amounts as of the assessment dates and no risk of impairment existed.
Business Combinations
Under the acquisition method of accounting, we recognize tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. We record the excess of the fair value of the purchase consideration over the value of the net assets acquired as goodwill. The accounting for business combinations requires us to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets and the fair value of contingent payment obligations. Critical estimates in valuing purchased technology, customer lists and other identifiable intangible assets include future cash flows that we expect to generate from the acquired assets. If the subsequent actual results and updated projections of the underlying business activity change compared with the assumptions and projections used to develop these values, we could experience impairment charges which could be material. In addition, we have estimated the economic lives of certain acquired assets and these lives are used to calculate depreciation and amortization expense. If our estimates of the economic lives change, depreciation or amortization expenses could be accelerated or slowed.
We record contingent consideration resulting from a business combination at its fair value on the acquisition date. We generally determine the fair value of the contingent consideration using the income approach methodology of valuation. Each reporting period thereafter, we revalue these obligations and record increases or decreases in their fair value as an adjustment to operating expenses within the Consolidated Statements of Income. Changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration can result from changes in assumed discount periods and rates, and from changes pertaining to the achievement of the defined milestones. Significant judgment is employed in determining the appropriateness of these assumptions as of the acquisition date and for each subsequent period. Accordingly, future business and economic conditions, as well as changes in any of the assumptions described above, can materially impact the amount of contingent consideration expense we record in any given period.
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Accounting for Income Taxes
We make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. These estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of income tax credits, benefits, and deductions, and in the calculation of certain tax assets and liabilities, which arise from differences in the timing of the recognition of certain expenses for tax and financial statement purposes. We assess the likelihood of the realization of deferred tax assets and record a corresponding valuation allowance as necessary if we determine those deferred tax assets may not be realized due to the uncertainty of the timing and amount to be realized of certain state and international tax credit carryovers. In reaching our conclusion, we evaluate certain relevant criteria including the existence of deferred tax liabilities that can be used to realize deferred tax assets, the taxable income in prior carryback years in the impacted state and international jurisdictions that can be used to absorb net operating losses and taxable income in future years. Our judgments regarding future profitability may change due to future market conditions, changes in U.S. or international tax laws and other factors. These changes, if any, may require material adjustments to these deferred tax assets, which may result in an increase or decrease to our income tax provision in future periods.
We account for uncertain tax positions by first determining if it is “more likely than not” that a tax position will be sustained by the appropriate taxing authorities prior to recording any benefit in the financial statements. An uncertain income tax position is not recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. For those tax positions where it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained, we have recorded the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, no tax benefit has been recognized in the financial statements. We classify interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions within the provision for (benefit from) income taxes line of the Consolidated Statements of Income. We reevaluate these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in known facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, effectively settled issues under audit, and new guidance on legislative interpretations. A change in these factors could result in the recognition of an increase or decrease to our income tax provision, which could materially impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations.
In the ordinary course of global business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax outcome is uncertain. Some of these uncertainties arise as a consequence of cost reimbursement and royalty arrangements among related entities. Although we believe our estimates are reasonable, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome of these matters will not be different than that which is reflected in our historical income tax provisions and income tax liabilities. In the event our assumptions are incorrect, the differences could have a material impact on our income tax provision and operating results in the period in which such determination is made. In addition to the factors described above, our current and expected effective tax rate is based on then-current tax law. Significant changes during the year in enacted tax law could affect these estimates.
See Note 12, Income Taxes, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further discussion.
Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-based compensation expense associated with stock options and related awards is recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Determining the amount of stock-based compensation to be recorded requires us to develop estimates to be used in calculating the grant-date fair value of stock options, restricted stock units and market-based and/or performance-based restricted stock units. We calculate the grant-date fair values of stock options using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The grant-date fair value of restricted stock units with a service condition and restricted stock units with both service and performance conditions is calculated using the value of our common stock on the date of grant, reduced by the present value of dividends expected to be paid on our common stock prior to vesting. For restricted stock units with both service and performance conditions, this grant-date fair value is also impacted by the number of units that are expected to vest during the performance period and is adjusted through the related stock-based compensation expense at each reporting period based on the probability of achievement of that performance condition. If we determine that an award is unlikely to vest, any previously recorded stock-based compensation expense is reversed in the period of that determination. The grant date fair value of restricted stock units and performance-based stock options with both service and market conditions are calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the probability of satisfying the performance condition stipulated in the award grant, including the possibility that the market condition may not be satisfied.
The use of valuation models requires us to make estimates of key assumptions such as expected volatility, expected term, risk-free interest rate, expected dividend yield, forfeiture rate and others. The estimate of these key assumptions is based on historical information and judgment regarding market factors and trends. We recognize the expense related to equity awards on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. See Note 2r, Stock-based Compensation, and Note 3, Stock-Based Compensation and Shareholders' Equity, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information related to stock-based compensation.
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Contingencies
From time to time, in the ordinary course of business, various claims, charges and litigation are asserted or commenced against us arising from, or related to, among other things, contractual matters, patents, trademarks, personal injury, environmental matters, product liability, insurance coverage, employment or employment benefits. We periodically assess each matter to determine if a contingent liability should be recorded. In making this determination, we may, depending on the nature of the matter, consult with internal and external legal counsel and technical experts. Based on the information we obtain, combined with our judgment regarding all the facts and circumstances of each matter, we determine whether it is probable that a contingent loss may be incurred and whether the amount of such loss can be reasonably estimated. If a loss is probable and reasonably estimable, we record a contingent loss. In determining the amount of a contingent loss, we consider advice received from experts in the specific matter, current status of legal proceedings, settlement negotiations that may be ongoing, prior case history and other factors. If the judgments and estimates made by us are incorrect, we may need to record additional contingent losses that could materially adversely impact our results of operations.


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ITEM 7A.     QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Interest Rate Exposure
Our interest income and expense are sensitive to changes in the general level of interest rates. In this regard, changes in interest rates affect the interest earned or paid on our marketable securities and debt, as well as the fair value of our investments and debt.
Based on the $500.0 million of our floating rate debt outstanding as of October 29, 2022, our annual interest expense would change by approximately $5.0 million for each 100 basis point increase in interest rates.
Based on our cash and marketable securities outstanding as of October 29, 2022 and October 30, 2021, our annual interest income would change by approximately $14.7 million and $19.7 million, respectively, for each 100 basis point increase in interest rates.
To provide a meaningful assessment of the interest rate risk associated with our investment portfolio, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the impact a change in interest rates would have on the value of our investment portfolio assuming an immediate 100 basis point parallel shift in the yield curve. Based on investment positions as of October 29, 2022 and October 30, 2021, a hypothetical 100 basis point increase in interest rates across all maturities would not materially impact the fair market value of the portfolio in either period. If significant, such losses would only be realized if we sold the investments prior to maturity.
As of October 29, 2022, we had $6.6 billion in principal amount of senior unsecured notes outstanding, with a fair value of $5.5 billion. The fair value of our notes is subject to interest rate risk, market risk, and other factors. Generally, the fair value of our notes will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. The fair values of our notes as of October 29, 2022 and October 30, 2021, assuming a hypothetical 100 basis point increase in market interest rates, are as follows:
October 29, 2022October 30, 2021
(thousands)Principal Amount OutstandingFair Value Fair Value given an increase in interest rates of 100 basis pointsPrincipal Amount OutstandingFair Value Fair Value given an increase in interest rates of 100 basis points
Maxim 2023 Notes, due March 2023$— $— $— $500,000 $520,236 $513,273 
2024 Notes, due October 2024500,000 491,982 483,035 500,000 500,482 486,201 
2025 Notes, due April 2025400,000 383,378 374,686 400,000 423,265 409,725 
2026 Notes, due December 2026900,000 851,479 820,203 900,000 986,243 941,160 
Maxim 2027 Notes, due June 202759,788 54,771 52,534 500,000 542,942 515,866 
2027 Notes, due June 2027440,212 410,091 393,294 — — — 
2028 Notes, due October 2028750,000 621,093 588,044 750,000 743,109 696,554 
2031 Notes, due October 20311,000,000 786,772 727,579 1,000,000 996,702 912,196 
2032 Notes, due October 2032300,000 278,359 257,337 — — — 
2036 Notes, due December 2036144,278 126,274 114,389 144,278 176,960 158,110 
2041 Notes, due October 2041750,000 513,709 450,337 750,000 758,246 652,754 
2045 Notes, due December 2045332,587 313,931 276,820 332,587 469,592 404,287 
2051 Notes, due October 20511,000,000 640,766 545,958 1,000,000 1,029,830 848,513 
Foreign Currency Exposure
As more fully described in Note 2i, Derivative and Hedging Agreements, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we regularly hedge our non-U.S. dollar-based exposures by entering into forward foreign currency exchange contracts. The terms of these contracts are for periods matching the duration of the underlying exposure and generally range from one to twelve months. Currently, our largest foreign currency exposure is the Euro, primarily because our European operations have the highest proportion of our local currency denominated expenses. Relative to the net unhedged foreign currency exposures existing at October 29, 2022 and October 30, 2021, an immediate 10% unfavorable movement in foreign currency exchange rates would result in approximately $69.5 million of losses and $39.5 million of losses, respectively, in changes in earnings or cash flows over the course of the year.
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The market risk associated with our derivative instruments results from currency exchange rates that are expected to offset the market risk of the underlying transactions, assets and liabilities being hedged. The counterparties to the agreements relating to our foreign exchange instruments consist of a number of major international financial institutions with high credit ratings. Based on the credit ratings of our counterparties as of October 29, 2022, we do not believe that there is significant risk of nonperformance by them. While the contract or notional amounts of derivative financial instruments provide one measure of the volume of these transactions, they do not represent the amount of our exposure to credit risk. The amounts potentially subject to credit risk (arising from the possible inability of counterparties to meet the terms of their contracts) are generally limited to the amounts, if any, by which the counterparties’ obligations under the contracts exceed our obligations to the counterparties.
The following table illustrates the effect that an immediate 10% unfavorable or favorable movement in foreign currency exchange rates, relative to the U.S. dollar, would have on the fair value of our forward exchange contracts as of October 29, 2022 and October 30, 2021:
October 29, 2022October 30, 2021
Fair value of forward exchange contracts$(16,984)$(8,085)
Fair value of forward exchange contracts after a 10% unfavorable movement in foreign currency exchange rates asset$21,193 $26,673 
Fair value of forward exchange contracts after a 10% favorable movement in foreign currency exchange rates liability$(51,604)$(41,034)
The calculation assumes that each exchange rate would change in the same direction relative to the U.S. dollar. In addition to the direct effects of changes in exchange rates, such changes typically affect the volume of sales or the foreign currency sales price as competitors’ products become more or less attractive. Our sensitivity analysis of the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates does not factor in a potential change in sales levels or local currency selling prices.
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Analog Devices, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Analog Devices, Inc. (the Company) as of October 29, 2022 and October 30, 2021, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, shareholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended October 29, 2022, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at October 29, 2022 and October 30, 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended October 29, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of October 29, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), and our report dated November 22, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the account or disclosure to which it relates.

Revenue Recognition – Measuring Price Protection Credits
Description of the MatterAs described in Note 2n to the consolidated financial statements, the Company's sales contracts provide certain distributors with credits for price protection and rights of return, which results in variable consideration. During 2022, sales to distributors were $7.5 billion net of expected price protection credits and rights of return for which the liability balance as of October 29, 2022 was $749.4 million, of which the vast majority relates to the price protection credits.

Auditing the Company's measurement for price protection credits under distributor contracts involved especially challenging judgment because the calculation involves subjective management assumptions about estimates of expected price protection credits. For example, estimated price protection credits included in the transaction price reflects management's evaluation of contractual terms, historical experience and assumptions about future economic conditions. Changes in those assumptions can have a material effect on the amount recognized for price protection credits.
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How We Addressed the Matter in Our AuditWe obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company's process to calculate the price protection credits. For example, we tested controls over the appropriateness of assumptions management used as well as controls over the completeness and accuracy of the data underlying estimates of expected price protection credits.

Our audit procedures included, among others, inspecting contractual terms in distributor agreements and testing the underlying data used in management’s calculation for completeness and accuracy as well as evaluating the significant assumptions used in the estimation of the price protection credits. We evaluated the Company’s methods and assumptions used in the estimates, which included comparing the assumptions to historical trends. We inspected and tested the results of the Company's retrospective review analysis of actual price protection credits claimed by distributors, evaluated the estimates made based on historical experience and performed sensitivity analyses of the Company’s significant assumptions to assess the impact on the price protection credits. We also evaluated whether the Company appropriately considered new information that could significantly change the estimated future price protection credits.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1967.

Boston, Massachusetts
November 22, 2022
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ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

ANALOG DEVICES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
Years ended October 29, 2022, October 30, 2021 and October 31, 2020

(thousands, except per share amounts)2022
2021
2020
Revenue   
Revenue$12,013,953 $7,318,286 $5,603,056 
Costs and Expenses   
Cost of sales4,481,479 2,793,274 1,912,578 
Gross margin7,532,474 4,525,012 3,690,478 
Operating expenses:   
Research and development1,700,518 1,296,126 1,050,519 
Selling, marketing, general and administrative1,266,175 915,418 659,923 
Amortization of intangibles1,012,572 536,811 429,455 
Special charges, net274,509 84,456 52,337 
 4,253,774 2,832,811 2,192,234 
Operating income: 3,278,700 1,692,201 1,498,244 
Nonoperating expense (income):   
Interest expense200,408 184,825 193,305 
Loss on extinguishment of debt 215,150  
Interest income(6,906)(1,220)(4,305)
Other, net(13,551)(35,268)(2,373)
 179,951 363,487 186,627 
Earnings   
Income before income taxes3,098,749 1,328,714 1,311,617 
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes350,188 (61,708)90,856 
Net income$2,748,561 $1,390,422 $1,220,761 
Shares used to compute earnings per common share — basic519,226 397,462 368,633 
Shares used to compute earnings per common share — diluted523,178 401,288 371,973 
Basic earnings per common share$5.29 $3.50 $3.31 
Diluted earnings per common share$5.25 $3.46 $3.28 

See accompanying Notes.
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ANALOG DEVICES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
Years ended October 29, 2022, October 30, 2021 and October 31, 2020

(thousands)20222021
2020
Net income$2,748,561 $1,390,422 $1,220,761 
Foreign currency translation adjustment(46,341)1,057 3,224 
Change in unrecognized gains/losses on derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges:   
Changes in fair value of derivatives (net of tax of $2,902 in 2022, $14,217 in 2021 and $17,468 in 2020)
(30,331)41,817 (51,437)
Adjustment for realized loss/(gain) reclassified into earnings (net of tax of $5,054 in 2022, $189 in 2021 and $158 in 2020)
34,472